Irregular spellings: when a word is spelled in a way that does not follow a regular pattern. For example, the word “earth” does not sound like its parts “ear” and “th”.
Generalizations: if readers know how to spell words that have a similar pattern, then they are able to apply that understanding to spell or read another word. For example, reader knows eat and seat and then uses that understanding to spell tr-eat...treat.
Prefixes and Suffixes: word parts added to the beginning (prefix) or ending (suffix) of a word that change the word’s meaning. An understanding of prefixes and suffixes can help a reader understand the meaning of the words.