Climate Trends & Data

  • What changes in the Earth’s climate are we observing?
  • Risk and Vulnerability: available tools and resources for the changing climate 

What changes in the Earth’s climate are we observing?

Scientific Assessment of Climate Change and its Effects in Maine

The Maine Climate Council's Scientific and Technical Subcommittee final report is part of the State Climate Action Plan and summarizes the impacts of climate change in Maine and how it might impact our state in the future.

Maine’s Climate Future

The Maine’s Climate Future Reports are prepared by scientists across the State of Maine and the University of Maine’s Climate Change Institute.

  • 2020 Maine's Climate Future: 2020 Update
  • 2018 Coastal Maine Climate Futures
  • 2015 Maine's Climate Future: 2015 Update
  • 2009 Maine's Climate Future: An Initial Assessment

Maine Climate Dashboard

The dashboards below show land temperatures, ocean surface temperatures, and sea levels over time. By tracking these indicators, reconstructing past climate changes, and using state of the art climate modeling, climate scientists have assembled a picture of Maine’s possible climate futures under different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios.

National Climate Assessment

The National Climate Assessments are developed by the U.S. Global Change Research Program and assess the science of climate change and its impacts across the United States. The fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4) reports changes in Northeast’s weather and climate, including a rise in sea level, warmer ocean temperatures, ocean acidification, an increase in winter and spring precipitation (little change in summer), more frequent and/or more intense storms, higher temperatures and extreme heat events, increasing average annual temperatures and precipitation amounts, and shorter winters and longer summers.

State Climate Summaries, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - National Centers for Environmental Information

These summaries provide up-to-date information on observed and projected climatic changes for each state.  Summaries are available both as web pages and downloadable PDFs ranging from four to six pages in length.   Each summary covers historical climate variations and trends, noteworthy extreme weather events, future projections of climate conditions over the next century, and past and future conditions of sea level and coastal flooding, where applicable.   State Climate Summaries have been developed in partnership with the Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth System Studies (CISESS), six Regional Climate Centers (RCCs), and individual state climatologists. 

International Assessment Reports

These are published materials composed of the full scientific and technical assessment of climate change from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).  The reports are generally in three volumes, one for each of the Working Groups of the IPCC, together with their Summaries for Policymakers, plus a Synthesis Report

Risk and Vulnerability: available tools and resources for the changing climate  

Please refer to the Maine Adaptation toolkit for information on adaptation practices and practitioners to inform a better understanding of how to adapt and build resilience to changes in the climate, and to any observed or possible impacts in your community, businesses, or home.

Resources include information on the follow topic areas:

Weather & Climate
Temperature (Air), Precipitation (Rain & Snow)

Flooding
Inland & Coastal Flash, Urban, Sea Level Rise, Coastal Storms

Ocean, Aquatic, and Terrestrial Systems
Oceans, Estuaries, Rivers, Streams, Lakes, Wetlands;
Farmlands/Agriculture, Forests, Meadows, Mountains

External hyperlinks are intended to provide Maine-specific information that might assist your efforts. Inclusion does not constitute endorsement by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection of the linked web sites, or the information, products or services contained therein.

Weather & Climate: Temperature (Air & Water), Precipitation (Rain & Snow)

Resource(s) Topic(s) Summary Source Geographic Range
Maine Climate Office

Temperature, Precipitation, Drought

Daily, monthly, seasonal and forecast data easily viewed in maps, graphs, and spreadsheets and available to download.  Climate report and research publications also available.

University of Maine Maine/Regional

Climate Reanalyzer

Temperature
Precipitation
Biomes

A platform for visualizing climate and weather datasets. Provides access to weather forecast models, and environmental change model for biome shifts and snow mass balance. Climate is average weather, and so Climate Reanalyzer also provides access to weather forecast models.

University of Maine

Maine/ Regional

Data from the Casco Bay Region Regional Resiliency Assessment Program (Northeastern University)

Downscaled Maine Precipitation Data (Northeast Regional Climate Center and Cornell University)

Temperature
Precipitation

Regional Resiliency Assessment Program Extreme Weather Data and Layers for Weather, Heat and Precipitation

From the “Downscaled Maine Temperature and Precipitation Data” webpage. Under the ‘Documentation’ tab, find ‘Related Studies’ to access the Maine Intensity-Duration Frequencies and Summary, and the Portland Radar Climatology and Urban Flood Analysis and Summary.

US Department of Homeland Security

Maine/ Regional

Climate Data and Information in the Northeast

Precipitation

Daily Observations, Climate Norms, Precipitation, and Extreme Precipitation 

Northeast Regional Climate Center

Maine/ Regional

Quarterly Outlooks

Daily/Weekly/Monthly Outlooks

Precipitation, Temperature

Recent weather events, climate anomalies, regional impacts, and a climate outlook

Northeast Regional Climate Center / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Maine/ Regional

Drought

Drought

Drought Basics,
Monitoring Conditions, Household Water Impacts, Who to Call Guide, Sensible Water Use

Maine Emergency Management Agency

Maine/ Regional

National Integrated Drought Information System

Drought

Current Conditions, Data, Maps, and Tools; Events and Webinars; Research and Resources.  ,

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration/Northeast Regional Climate Center

 

Maine/ Regional/ National

Extreme Precipitation Analysis in New England

Precipitation

An interactive web tool for extreme precipitation analysis.  Includes estimates of extreme rainfall for various durations and recurrence intervals.

Cornell University / Northeast Regional Climate Center

Maine/ Regional

Hydrometeorological Design Studies Center Precipitation Frequency Data Server (PFDS)

Precipitation

An interactive web tool delivering NOAA Atlas 14 precipitation frequency estimates and associated information.

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration-National Weather Service

Maine/ Regional

Maine Cooperative Snow Survey

Precipitation, Snow

The Maine Cooperative Snow Survey collects, interprets, and distributes information on the depth and water content of Maine's snowpack in the late Winter and early Spring, when the danger of flooding in Maine's rivers and streams is greatest. 

Maine Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey

Maine
Climate at a Glance

Temperature, Precipitation, Drought, Snow, and Ice

Near real-time analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data across the contiguous U.S. request data for select cities, states, regions, and the nation and compare current conditions with the historical record. 

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information

National

Climate Maps & Data

Temperature

NOAA Climate.gov is a source of timely and authoritative scientific data and information about climate

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Climate Explorer

Temperature
Precipitation

Maps and graphs of climate projections for every county in the contiguous United States

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Storm Events Database

Temperature, Precipitation, Drought, Flood, Wind, Snow and Ice, Wildfire

Storm Events Database contains the records used to create the official NOAA Storm Data publication: documenting occurrence of storms and other significant weather phenomena; rare, unusual, weather phenomena that generate media attention; and other significant meteorological events.  The database contains data from January 1950 to September 2021 (as of January 2022).  Search by state, county, and event types.

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information

National

Applied Climate Information System

Temperature, Precipitation, Drought

Operational information derived from historical archives and near real-time climate data.  ACIS includes an integrated metadata system for data and observation discovery; national, regional, and local datasets.  Assess historical climate trends, enhance daily operational decisions, or assist with any number of climate dependent activities.

NOAA Regional Climate Centers

National

Water Watch

Precipitation
Rivers, Streams, Flooding, Drought

Current Streamflow, Flood, Drought, Past Flow/Runoff (for US and by State)

US Geological Survey

National

Climate Publications

Precipitation
Rivers, Streams, Flooding
Drought

Historical Trends in Summer Precipitation, Base Flows, and Storm Flows in New England and Projections of Seasonal Stream Flows for Coastal Streams in Maine

USGS New England Water Science Center

National

Flooding: Inland & Coastal Flash, Urban, Sea Level Rise, Coastal Storms, Stormwater

Resource(s) Topic(s) Summary Source Geographic Range

Flood Mapping Resources

River Flooding

  • FEMA National Flood Hazard Layer
  • Maine Flood Hazard Map
  • 100 year storm (1% annual probability)

Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry

Maine/ Regional

Coastal Hazards Portal

River Flooding Sea Level Rise
Hurricanes

  • Highest Annual Tide Line
  • Highest Astronomical Tide Line
  • Sea Level Rise/Storm Surge (Highest Astronomical Tide + 1.2, 1.6, 3.9, 6.1, 8.8, and 10.9 feet)
  • Sea Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH)  – category 1, 2, 3, or 4 hurricane
  • Marsh Migration + 1, 2, 3.3, 6 feet sea level rise

Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry

Maine/ Regional

Maine Sea Level Rise Ticker and Dashboard

Sea Level Rise

Interactive viewers, updated every month, provide the best available information on past and future ocean and tide levels. The Ticker provides short-term (1995-present) sea level rise rates and monthly water level rankings for each of Maine's five tide gauges from Wells to Eastport. The Dashboard shows more in-depth information about sea level and water level trends.

Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry

Maine/ Regional

Regional Sea Level Rise Modelling

Sea Level Rise

Sea level rise and storm surge scenarios for coastal community by coastal county.  Potential marsh migration areas in Casco Bay communities.

Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry & Regional Planning Councils

Maine/ Regional

Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service

Precipitation River Observations, Forecasts, and Long-Range Flood Risk National Weather Service Maine/Regional

Maine River Flow Advisory Commission

River Flow
Flood Potential

River Flow, Flood Potential, Snowfall, Snow Cover, Snowpack, Snow Water Content/Depth/Density/Drainage

River Flow Advisory Commission

Maine/ Regional

Sea-Level Change Curve Calculator

Sea Level Rise

Sea Level Change Calculated from Tide Gauges in the U.S.  Select tide gauges and from different scenario sources.

US Army Corps of Engineers

National

Tides & Currents - High and Low Water Conditions

Coastal Water Levels

Using tide gauge readings, access local water levels, tide and current predictions, and other oceanographic and meteorological condition

NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services

National

National Storm Surge Hazard Maps

Storm Surge

For planning purposes, the NHC uses a representative sample of hypothetical storms to estimate the near worst–case scenario of flooding for each hurricane category

National Hurricane Center

National

Historic Hurricane Tracks

Hurricanes

Storms for specific locations, dates, storm details and reports

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Visualize Tidal Flooding Impacts

Sea Level Rise, River Flooding

Normal conditions, extreme high tides, flooding and sea level rise, how to prepare

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Sea Level Rise Viewer

Sea Level Rise, Marsh Migration, High Tide Flooding

Sea Level Rise (0-10 feet), Local Scenarios, Mapping Confidence, Vulnerability

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Coastal Flood Exposure Mapper

Hurricanes, Sea Level Rise

Sea Level Rise (0-6 feet), storm surge, 100 & 500 year flood, social, infrastructure, and ecological vulnerabilities

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Surging Seas

Sea Level Rise, Impacts

Web-based sea level rise analysis mapping tool developed by Climate Central that allows users to see areas potentially affected by sea level rise and storm surges, down to the neighborhood scale, with risk timelines. It also provides population statistics, summaries of homes and land affected by sea level rise and storm surge, fact sheets, data downloads, and action plans.

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Tides & Currents

Sea Level Rise

Sea Level – real time, historic, and trends

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

National

Sea Level Rise Mobile Application

Sea Level Rise

A crowdsourcing platform for gathering real-time, georeferenced data on local flooding and impacts.

Wetlands Watch

National

Ocean, Aquatic, and Terrestrial Systems: Oceans, Estuaries, Rivers, Streams, Lakes, Wetlands; Farmlands/Agriculture, Forests, Meadows, Mountains

Resource(s) Topic(s) Summary Source Geographic Range

Potential Tidal Marsh Migration

Marsh Migration

Potential Tidal Marsh Migration and Coastal Undeveloped Blocks After 1 m of Sea Level Rise maps and data

Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry

Maine / Regional

Ecosystem Indicator Monitoring Map

 

Temperature
Precipitation
Sea Level Rise

EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP): Indicators for the Gulf of Maine in six areas: coastal development, contaminants and pathogens, eutrophication, aquatic habitat, fisheries and aquaculture, and climate change. Includes several short fact sheets.

Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment

Maine / Regional

Maine Ice-Out Dates

Lake Ice

Historical Data

Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry

Maine / Regional

Ocean Acidification

Ocean Acidity

Effects of Marine Life, Research Priorities, Regional Conditions

Northeast Coastal Acidification Network (NECAN)

Maine / Regional

Ocean Acidification

Ocean Acidity

Impacts to marine ecosystem and resources

Island Institute

Maine / Regional

Maine Weather and Data

Oceans,
Marine Species

Weather Forecasts, Marine Forecasts, Weather Data, Historical Environmental Data, Environmental Issues: Climate Change, Invasive Species, Marine Pollution, Ocean Acidification

Department of Marine Resources

Maine / Regional

Climate and Fisheries Data Dashboard

Oceans, Marine Species

Quickly assess and evaluate ocean conditions in the context of past and projected changes.  Products within the dashboard include dynamic time series graphs and map-based representations of climatologies and anomalies. 

Gulf of Maine Research Institute

Maine/Regional

Marine Data

Oceans
Marine Species

Real Time Data/Maps, Waves, Currents, Flooding/Erosion, Forecasts

Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal and Ocean Observing Systems

Maine / Regional

Ocean and Weather Climate Display

Ocean Temperature

Recent and Past Years Ocean and Weather Conditions, Comparisons. The Ocean Climate Tool includes information about recent and past years oceanographic and meteorological conditions so that you can compare them to the average conditions from the past decade.

Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal and Ocean Observing Systems

Maine / Regional

Phenology Program: Signs of the Seasons

Growing Season

Citizen Science, Plants and Animals, Seasonal Changes

University of Maine

Maine / Regional

Wildfire Danger Report & Wildland Fire Occurrence Dashboard

Forests, Wildfire

Fire dangers for each zone is updated at 9AM.  This system is only operational during Maine’s wildfire season between late March and late November.

Maine Forest Service

Maine/Regional

Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

Ocean Temperature

Global monthly analysis of SST data derived from the International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Dataset (ICOADS). The dataset can be used for long-term global and basin-wide studies and incorporates smoothed local and short-term variations.  2 degree × 2 degree horizontal grid with statistically enhanced spatial completeness.  January 1854—Present.

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information

National