Spruce - Fir - Northern Hardwoods Forest Ecosystem

  State Rank: S5

This forest ecosystem can be found over most of the northern half of the state, and is often referred to by foresters as the Spruce - Fir - Northern Hardwoods zone. Red spruce and balsam fir are the most widespread conifers. Conifer-dominated and hardwood-dominated forests intergrade with one another: conifers are typically found in the lowlands or at the highest elevations, while northern hardwood forests are found at mid-elevation hillsides or along mid-elevation ridgelines. This ecosystem is almost entirely limited to terrestrial communities, although it may includ vernal pools and intermittent streams.

Natural Communities Associated with Spruce - Fir - Northern Hardwoods Forest Ecosystem