Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fern.
Habitat: Dry sands of beaches, riverbanks, and openings. [Rocky coastal (non-forested, upland)]
Range: Maine to Florida, west to North Dakota, Oregon, California, and Texas.
Aids to Identification: This burgrass is characterized by flattened stems which do not grow erect, but in a spreading fashion. The upper leafblades are 4-8 mm wide, rough above and smooth beneath. The spikelets are only 1-flowered and the mature burs, including spikes, are 1-1.5 cm thick. The illustration shows the similar species, C. carolinianus, which generally grows more upright and tufted.
Ecological characteristics: In Maine, this species grows in partial to full sun in river banks, beaches, and disturbed areas
Phenology: Fruits August - October.
Synonyms: Cenchrus carolinianaus Walt.; Cenchrus echinatus L. forma longispinus Hack.
Known Distribution in Maine: This rare plant has been documented from a total of 1 town(s) in the following county(ies): York.
Reason(s) for rarity: At northern limit of range.
Conservation considerations: The species in general is adapted to disturbance; its conservation needs in Maine are unknown.