Science

Science and technology provide people with the knowledge and tools to understand and address many of the challenges of a rapidly changing world. Students must be provided with opportunities to access, understand, and evaluate current information and tools related to science and technology if they are to be ready to live in a 21st century global society. Science and technology merge in the pursuit of knowledge and solutions to problems that require the application of scientific understanding and product design. Solving technological problems demands scientific knowledge while modern technologies make it possible to discover new scientific knowledge. The science standards are based on the National Research Council’s 1996 National Science Education Standards and include both processes (ways scientists investigate and communicate about the natural world) and bodies of knowledge (concepts, principles, facts, theories). Technology includes the design process and the study of technological tools and their effects on society. The standards are broken into grade spans (pK-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-Diploma) and the five MLR standards for Science and Technology are organized as follows:

  • A – major themes that unify science and technology ideas, e.g. systems, models, constancy and change, scale
  • B – skills and traits of scientific inquiry and technological design
  • C – history and nature of science and the impacts on society
  • D – earth, space and physical science
  • E – life science


Social Studies

A strong social studies education depends upon a clear understanding of its interrelated disciplines. Although social studies curricula vary in their breadth and depth, the Social Studies Standards reflect a focus on government, history, geography, and economics as the pillars of the content, with other disciplines within the social sciences deemed important, but not essential. With that in mind, the social studies standards include four content areas (Civics and Government, Economics, Geography, History) and a strand about the application of social studies processes, knowledge, and skills. Each strand breaks down the standard into performance indicators and descriptors by grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-Diploma). The standards also include an introduction and a section of key ideas in the social studies standards.