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Standard 4 Resources for Induction

Procedures for mentors are established.

a. Roles and responsibilities for coaching/mentoring are defined.

Maine’s Definition of Effective Mentoring


“To coach is to convey a valued colleague from where he or she is to where he or she wants to be. “  Art Costa and Robert Garmston

Mentoring is the process by which a more experienced educator facilitates the growth of a beginning educator by acting as a coach, encouraging and modeling reflection, encouraging and modeling intentionality, focusing the beginning teacher on what is important, helping the beginning educator achieve his or her goals, assisting the him or her with career and professional development, connecting the beginning educator to others who can enhance his or her growth or development, and serving as a sounding board.

A mentor’s support and sponsorship needs to include meeting regularly with the beginning educator. This meeting is at least thirty to forty-five minutes in length and should be regularly scheduled. At the beginning of the school year these meetings tend to focus on support issues and familiarizing the beginning educator with the school and the district. It is important for the mentor to familiarize the mentee with the culture of the school. The mentor serves as an advocate for the beginning educator, and assists him or her in finding resources. Mentors also provide emotional support and problem solve with the beginning educator.

As the mentor and mentee relationship evolves into more collegiality, the meetings focus on such issues as effective planning and instruction, differentiation, curriculum, assessment and student achievement. The mentor or mentee documents the weekly meetings. At all times effective mentors use effective listening and questioning techniques, such as paraphrasing, positive presuppositions and combining data and questioning rather than judging.

Mentors also observe the beginning educator and his or her classroom at least four times during the school year. The coaching cycle model is used for all four visits. This includes a planning conference, the observation, and the reflecting conference. Each element of the conference should be conducted in a timely manner to increase the likelihood of reflection and professionalism on the part of the beginning educator. The first observation should be informal. The other three observations are more formal, using the suggested data collection techniques of “class traffic”, “verbal flow”, “interaction analysis”, “selective verbatim”, “global scan”, “at task”, or other non-evaluative, objective observation technique. The mentor only collects data on the agreed upon topics. Throughout the coaching cycle and weekly meetings, mentors always maintain confidentiality and problem solve using positive conflict resolution. Their observations should be used for certification purposes only, and never for employment or evaluation reasons.

Due to the intensive and personal nature of this model of mentoring it is strongly recommended that mentors are assigned to only one beginning educator at a time.

b. Three days of mentor training are provided that include: the needs of beginning educators as adult learners, Maine’s Initial Teacher Certification Standards, active listening and questioning skills, cognitive coaching, classroom observation data collection, teachers’ developmental stages, leadership styles, and the nature of the mentoring relationship.


Recommended Mentor Training: Maine’s Three Day Model

Maine's Model of Three Day Mentor Training

This course introduces mentors to the needs of beginning educators and how best to mentor/coach them toward professional certification. This three day workshop was co-developed with Learning Innovations at WestEd, an educational research consulting firm, and the Maine Department of Education during a 2001-2003 Title IIA TQE research grant. 


During the training participants will be given opportunities to:

  • Understand the needs of beginning educators
  • Become familiar with confidentiality guidelines
  • Understand the role of the mentor/coach in addressing beginning educator needs
  • Have a shared definition of coaching and mentoring
  • Become familiar with Maine’s Initial Teacher Certification Standards
  • Enhance listening and questioning skills to promote reflection
  • Learn to match mentoring approaches to beginning educator needs
  • Learn and practice the Coaching Cycle
  • Enhance knowledge of classroom observation techniques
  • Increase awareness of how objective observation data and
    non-judgmental feedback can provide a framework for
    educational decision-making
  • Use Maine’s Initial Teacher Certification Standards in mentoring and coaching
  • Enhance listening and questioning skills to promote reflection and effective teaching
  • Understand the needs of adult learners
  • Enhance knowledge of teachers’ developmental stages, and the phases of mentoring relationships
  • Understand and practice conflict resolution skills
  • Observe and practice the techniques used to plan instruction and assessment
  • Observe and practice coaching using Maine’s Initial Teacher Certification Standards and Maine’s Learning Results

Participants will attend three days of initial training, and be given opportunities to engage in a State network of colleagues on mentoring & induction issues. A “Refresher, Day 4” will be offered at a later date. In addition participants will receive a fully developed packet of resources and sample forms to use in their mentoring practice. Completion of the three day workshop leads to 18 professional development contact hours, and qualifies participants to attend the Maine Department of Education’s “Mentors Training Mentors” workshop.

Successful completion of the “Mentors Training Mentors” workshop qualifies participants to deliver Maine’s Mentor Training Workshop in their own SAU, and throughout the State.

c. Mentors are provided on-going professional development that includes time to work with other mentors to improve their knowledge and skills related to coaching and mentoring and are provided regular updating of mentor training

Center for Cognitive Coaching, Overview of Cognitive Coaching. (2006). Online article retrieved February 10, 2007 from

Pan, D.T., Mutchler, S.E., Shapley, K.S., Bush, J. & Glover, R.W.  (2000) Mentoring Beginning Teachers: Lessons from the Experience in Texas - Policy Research Report.  Austin, Texas: The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.  Online publication retrieved February 10, 2007 from

Lipton, Laura, Wellman, Bruce, Humbard, Carlette (2001). Mentoring Matters (pp. 29-40), MiraVia, LLC Sherman CT, Available from MiraVia Web site

Scherer, Marge. (Ed.). (1999). A Better Beginning: Supporting and Mentoring New Teachers.  Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Available from ASCD at

Scherer, Marge. (Ed.). (1999). A Better Beginning: Supporting and Mentoring New Teachers.  Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Available from ASCD at

Podsen, I. J. & Denmark, V. M.  (2000) Coaching and Mentoring First Year and Student Teachers.  Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. Available from Eye on Education at

Gordon, Stephen P. & Maxey, Susan. (2000) How To Help Beginning Teachers Succeed 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Available from ASCD at

Breaux, Annette L.; Wong, Harry K. (2003) New Teacher Induction:  How to Train, Support, and Retain New Teachers.  Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications.  Available from Harry K. Wong Publications at

Portner, Hal (2001). Training Mentors Is Not Enough:  Everything Else Schools and Districts Need to Do. (pp. 58-59). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, Inc.  Available from Corwin Press, Inc. at