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The Department of Education shall maintain a directory of recommended physical restraint training programs, which must include at least the following elements:

  1. Appropriate procedures for preventing the need for physical restraint, including the de-escalation of dangerous behavior, relationship-building, and the use of alternatives to physical restraint;
  2. Identification of dangerous behaviors that may indicate the need for physical restraint and methods for evaluating the risk of harm to determine if physical restraint is warranted;
  3. Simulated experience in administering and in receiving a variety of physical
    restraint techniques, across a range of increasingly restrictive interventions;
  4. Instruction regarding the effects of physical restraint on the person restrained, including monitoring physical signs of distress and how to obtain medical assistance;
  5. Instruction regarding investigation of injuries and complaints.

A school may use a training program that is not on the state recommended list if it submits a plan to the Commissioner of Education demonstrating how that training program meets the purposes of these Rules and contains the elements listed above.



Each public agency and nonpublic school must provide professional
development to designated school personnel regarding the regulations and the
appropriate implementation of the policies and procedures developed in
accordance with the regulations.

At the beginning of each school year, each public agency and nonpublic
school must identify school personnel authorized to serve as a school-wide
resource to assist in ensuring that exclusion, restraint, and seclusion are
utilized properly at the school. These school personnel shall receive
training in current, professionally accepted practices and standards

  1. Positive behavior interventions, strategies, and supports;
  2. Functional behavior assessment and behavior intervention planning;
  3. Exclusion;
  4. Restraint, including alternatives to restraint;
  5. Seclusion; and
  6. Symptoms of physical distress and positional asphyxia.

The professional development described above shall include a written
examination and physical demonstration of proficiency in the described
skills and competencies. Additional areas in which public agencies and
nonpublic schools may wish to consider training to include child
development, trauma recognition and prevention, neurobiological and
psychological effects of trauma, relationship-building and collaborative
problem-solving, collaborating with families to create and maintain positive
behavioral supports, matching behaviors with interventions, prevention and
de-escalation techniques, signs of physical distress, systemic effects of
the use of restraint and seclusion on bystanders, legal and ethical issues,
investigation of injuries and complaints, documentation, and data collection
and analysis.

30. Do public agencies and nonpublic schools have an oversight role with
respect to the use of exclusion, restraint, and seclusion?
Yes. Each public agency and nonpublic school must develop policies and
procedures regarding monitoring the use of exclusion, restraint, and
seclusion, and receiving and investigating complaints regarding exclusion,
restraint, and seclusion practices.

Additionally, the Maryland State Department of Education may monitor and ask
for any information about any matter related to exclusion, restraint, or
seclusion implemented by a public agency or nonpublic school. The Department
must provide written notice of the requested information and specify the
time and manner in which the public agency or nonpublic school shall answer
the request.

MA Training/ Professional Development

In order to receive the full 16 hours of training referred to in the
legislation, districts contract through regional collaborative and/or
private providers to certify lead personnel and staff trainers in restraint
procedures and policies. DESE staff suggests that inquiries related to
finding restraint and seclusion training or professional development be made
to other MA districts. A number of the professional development trainings
that certify school personnel are coordinated and provided through the state’s
regional Educational Cooperatives.


The Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI) is provided by the TEC/EDCO Education Collaborative, Dedham, MA.

MSEC (The Merrimac Special Education Collaborative) offers physical
restraint training for interested schools and other groups. “MSEC provides
both the overview training on physical restraint required by the Department
of Education for all school staff, as well as in-depth training for staff
who serve as a required school-wide resource. The MSEC trainer is certified
in CPI, has trained over 2,000 staff.”