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The Flood of 1987: Remember
March 30, 2007
AUGUSTA, MAINE -- 20 years ago this week, the State of Maine suffered one of the worst natural disasters in its history. The Maine River Flow Advisory Commission would like Mainers to remember the lessons of the Flood of 1987.
Maine had a normal snowpack, and normal flood potential in late March of 1987. However, a warm rainstorm brought 4 to 6 inches of rain to the mountains of Maine and New Hampshire, which combined with 6 or more inches of melted snow. The water ran over frozen ground, and streams and rivers began to rise. Flooding became disastrous on April 1, 1987 on Maine’s major rivers. The result:
- 2100 homes flooded; 215 destroyed, 240 with major damage
- 400 small businesses impacted
- Countless roads and bridges destroyed or damaged
- Fort Halifax historic site in Winslow washed away
- Losses estimated at over $100 million ($171 million in today’s dollars)
20 years later, many things have improved in the state:
- Innovative local acquisition and relocation projects in Winslow, Guilford, Allagash, Fort Fairfield and Canton have resulted in dozens of homes and businesses being moved out of harm’s way.
- Emergency management has become much more professional and effective statewide; the state to county to local network is strong across the state.
- Code Enforcement Officer training and certification and outreach to surveyors, engineers, lenders and insurance agents has resulted in better understanding and implementation of floodplain management, mitigation measures and flood insurance programs, all of which reduce vulnerability to flooding.
- The coordination among federal and state agencies and Maine’s private sector river basin managers through the River Flow Advisory Commission is stronger than ever. Constant open information exchange among all parties leads not only to better forecasts and warnings, but also mitigation strategies.
Despite advances in mitigation and preparedness, there are always opportunities for improvement. A study by the University of Maine Land and Water Resources Center in 1987 noted that floods become disasters by virtue of the placement of people and property in their way. Contributing factors to flood damage cited in the report remain important to consider today:
- Urban development including buildings and parking lots can increase and pollute stormwater runoff;
- Development in the floodplain is at risk not only from flood water but from contamination and debris;
- Lack of preparation and awareness by property owners in the floodplain increases vulnerability dramatically;
- Shortcomings in warnings and the failure of people to take warnings seriously may result in life-threatening situations and additional property loss.
In theory, a flood of this magnitude should occur only once in a hundred years or more. In reality, it can happen at any time when the wrong weather factors come together. Though we cannot stop such a flood from occurring, we can all try to reduce its effects.
Maine communities can:
- Practice responsible floodplain management
- Prepare and practice realistic emergency plans to respond to floods
- Think ahead and plan for what it would take to recover economically from a major flood.
Maine residents and business owners can:
- Learn about their flood risk
- Make sure they have adequate flood insurance (homeowners and business insurance does not cover flood damage)
- Make sure they have emergency plans for their families and businesses
- “Stay tuned” to weather forecasts and warnings at all times
And we can all do one very important thing: Remember.
To learn more:
- Current Conditions: http://www.maine.gov/rfac/riverwatch.shtml
- Floodplain Management: http://www.maine.gov/spo/flood/
- Flood preparedness: Maine Prepares: http://www.maineprepares.com
- Flood of April 1987 in Maine (USGS Water Supply Paper 2424): http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/wsp/wsp2424
- University of Maine report, “The Flood of April 1987”: http://www.maine.gov/spo/flood/docs/april1987flood.pdf
- Photo galleries of 1987 and other floods in Maine: http://www.maine.gov/mema/prepare/prepgallery.shtml
- Town of Skowhegan flood photos: http://www.skowhegan.org/news/default.asp?ncat=24
- River Flow Advisory Commission: http://www.maine.gov/rfac