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Title VI Quiz and Certificate - History of the Civil Rights Movement
History of Discrimpination in Maine
Maine has a varied past regarding discrimination. From the onset of European settlement to the present day, discrimination has and does exist in Maine. We also have a rich history of civility and tolerance in the face of our discretions. The Wabanaki or “people of the dawn” were first greeted by French and then English settlers in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
The Wabanaki were some of the earliest Native communities to encounter Europeans. Contact involved the exchange of ideas and knowledge, as well as material goods. Within decades, European diseases, warfare, alcohol and conversion to Christianity dramatically altered Wabanaki societies. (from the Abbe Museum Timeline.)
Malaga Island off the coast of Phippsburg was home to African American and racially mixed families for more than a century. The hard working impoverished people were thought an eyesore to those on the mainland. In 1912, after many land disputes and pressure from the white landowners in surrounding areas, the small community members of Malaga Island were forced to vacate their homes. Some were sent to what was then called “the Home for the Feeble-minded” in Pownal, Maine.
During the Industrial Revolution, Maine’s rivers became desirable location for mills due to their strong currents and tidal power. Mills and factories were built on nearly every major water way and with these factories came immigrant labor from Ireland, and Canada. Many of these immigrants were Catholic and many, from Canada, spoke only French. There are areas in Maine today where French is still spoken as a first language. These people met discrimination from the established society, mostly of English descent, who feared their customs, language and appearances.
The picture above isn’t of Alabama or Mississippi, it is Brownville Junction, Maine. In the 1920’s, Maine had over 20,000 Klu Klux Klan members at the height of its organization. Unlike much of the country, the Maine Klan did not target African American's but Franco Americans, who came from Canada to Maine in great numbers to work in the textile and paper mills. They targeted Franco Americans because of they spoke French, had different customs and were predominantly Catholic.
What is Title VI of the Civil Rights Act?
Title VI, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d et seq., was enacted as part of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. It provides that, “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
Key to Title VI Compliance
Ensure that all persons receive:
…without regard to their race, color, or national origin.
WHAT IS DISCRIMNATION?
That act (action or inaction), whether intentional or unintentional, through which a person in the United States solely because of distinguishing protected attributes, is subjected to disparate treatment or impact, in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance from FHWA under 23 USC.
Executive Order 12898
Environmental Justice (EJ) (Cont'd) – In 1997, U.S. Department of Transportation issued DOT Order 5610.2, followed by a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) order on EJ, to further clarify and expand upon the requirements of Executive Order 12898. The goal of the FHWA order is to ensure that its programs, policies and activities do not have a disproportionately high and adverse effect on minority or low income populations. Because the nondiscrimination requirements of Title VI extend to all programs and activities within MaineDOT its subrecipients (Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) Towns, Transit Providers and other public agencies who receive federally funds through the MaineDOT) and contractors, the concepts of EJ apply to all State projects, including those that are not funded with federal-aid funds.
Communities change, thereby, evaluation of human impacts must be given continuous attention throughout planning, project development, implementation, post-construction operations and maintenance. All reasonably foreseeable adverse social, economic, and environmental effects on minority and low-income populations must always be identified and addressed.
MaineDOT Civil Rights, Title VI Coordinator
The Title VI Coordinator, among other things, is the MaineDOT expert on the Title VI Program Plan and Guidelines and plays a lead and participatory role in the development and implementation of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Title VI Compliance Program statewide.
MaineDOT Civil Rights, Title VI Liaisons
Title VI Discrimination Complaint Process
Complaints may be filed by any individual or group who believe they have been excluded from participation in, denied benefits or services of any program or activities administered by MaineDOT or its subrecipients, consultants, contractors or suppliers on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, disability or age. Under no circumstance, is the complainant discouraged from filing a complaint. Every effort will be made to obtain early resolution of complaints at the lowest level possible.
In all situations, you must immediately notify your supervisor and/or manager if you receive a complaint. If the complaint is received in the district, forward it to the Title VI Liaison or the Title VI Coordinator; and if received in Headquarters, forward the complaint to the appropriate Title VI Program Area Liaison assigned to the division. All Title VI complaints will be forwarded to the Civil Rights Office.
The complaint must be submitted in writing within 180 calendar days from the alleged occurrence. The complaint must be signed and dated by the individual or their representative.
MaineDOT will provide written acknowledgement to the complainant, determine jurisdiction, investigate or forward the complaint to the appropriate agency having jurisdiction. MaineDOT, its subrecipients, contractors, consultants, and/or suppliers are prohibited from intimidating or retaliating against any individual or group filing a Title VI and related statutes discrimination complaint.
Whenever a Maine DOT employee interacts with the public we need to ensure that no one is being discriminated against. In order to better serve the public, MaineDOT employees should complete a MaineDOT Title VI Meeting Form which assists the presenter(s) in preparing for and documenting the public forum. This Form includes the meeting date location and type, how the public was notified and if there were any minority groups impacted. It also provides a record of any language barriers that may a have been encountered, if interpreters were utilized, if disabled individuals were present and if accommodations were required.
It is also important to ensure that MaineDOT Title VI Pamphlets were present and that the audience is aware of Title VI.
This page last updated on 7/17/12
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