Bloom's Taxonomy

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. During the 1990s, a new group of cognitive psychologists, led by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom), updated the taxonomy to reflect relevance to 21st-century work. The two graphics below show the revised and original taxonomy. "Creating" is now at the top of the pyramid. In the "New Definitions" section below, note the change from nouns to verbs associated with each level.

New Bloom's Taxonomy Original Bloom's Taxonomy

Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (left) vs. Original Bloom's Taxonomy

New Definitions of Levels of Intellectual Behavior

Creating: Can the student create new product or point of view?

  • assemble
  • construct
  • create
  • design
  • develop
  • formulate
  • write

Evaluating: Can the student justify a stand or decision?

  • appraise
  • argue
  • defend
  • judge
  • select
  • support
  • value
  • evaluate

Analyzing: Can the student distinguish between the different parts?

  • appraise
  • compare
  • contrast
  • criticize
  • differentiate
  • discriminate
  • distinguish
  • examine
  • experiment
  • question
  • test

Applying: Can the student use the information in a new way?

  • choose
  • demonstrate
  • dramatize
  • employ
  • illustrate
  • interpret
  • operate
  • schedule
  • sketch
  • solve
  • use
  • write

Understanding: Can the student explain ideas or concepts?

  • classify
  • describe
  • discuss
  • explain
  • identify
  • locate
  • recognize
  • report
  • select
  • translate
  • paraphrase

Remembering: Can the student recall or remember the information?

  • define
  • duplicate
  • list
  • memorize
  • recall
  • repeat
  • reproduce
  • state