In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. During the 1990s, a new group of cognitive psychologists, led by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom), updated the taxonomy to reflect relevance to 21st-century work. The two graphics below show the revised and original taxonomy. "Creating" is now at the top of the pyramid. In the "New Definitions" section below, note the change from nouns to verbs associated with each level.
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (left) vs. Original Bloom's Taxonomy
New Definitions of Levels of Intellectual Behavior
Creating: Can the student create new product or point of view?
Evaluating: Can the student justify a stand or decision?
Analyzing: Can the student distinguish between the different parts?
Applying: Can the student use the information in a new way?
Understanding: Can the student explain ideas or concepts?
Remembering: Can the student recall or remember the information?