Maine Public Health Data Reports

The following are explanations of terms used on this website. These explanations are meant to be guidelines only and are not formal definitions.

Glossary of Terms

: A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: I: J-K: L: M: N: O: P: Q: R: S: T: U-V: W-X-Y-Z:
Term Description Source
 
24/7 Tobacco-free Policies Refers to policies that prohibit smoking 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within all school / university affiliated buildings and at all university / school sponsored events - both indoor and outdoor. Maine Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan. 2006 - 2010 (undated). Pg. 97

A

Access An individual's ability to obtain appropriate health care services. Barriers to access can be financial (insufficient monetary resources), geographic (distance to providers), organizational (lack of providers), and sociological (discrimination, language barriers). Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.119
Affective Disorders Include major depression and manic depressive illness. Major depression is the leading cause of disability among adults in developed nations such as the United States. It is not simply a "blue" mood, but rather a variety of feelings such as despair and loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all things that interfere with one's daily living. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 133
Age-Adjusted Rate Age-adjustment is a method used to better ensure comparability of estimates (e.g. rates) with respect to age. The age distribution of a population may change over time and differ from place to place. Because some health conditions or diseases are more common in certain age groups of people, it can be misleading to compare rates or prevalence estimates of populations if the age distribution of the populations compared are different. A rate is age-adjusted by applying age-specific rates in the population of interest to the U.S. 2000 Census standard population. Age-adjusted rates are relative and should not be considered exact rates that necessarily represent the true underlying burden of disease in the population. Additional information on age adjustment is available at www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/statnt
/statnt06rv.pdf

or www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/
statnt/statnt20.pdf

 

For additional information see Technical Notes

District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.81
Age-Adjusted Rates A rate that has been statistically modified to eliminate the effect of varying age distributions in different populations. Age adjustment is a statistical method that is used to allow health measures (like rates of disease, death, or injuries) to be compared between communities with different age structures.

 

For additional information see Technical Notes

Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) A federal agency authorized in 1999 to support research focused on quality, safety, efficiency and effectiveness of health care. Additional information is available at www.ahrq.gov Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.119
American Cancer Society (ACS) The American Cancer Society (ACS) in Maine has been a partner in efforts to reduce the impact of cancer in Maine for many years. The ACS is a community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives from cancer, and diminishing suffering from cancer through research, education, advocacy, and service. Maine Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan. 2006 - 2010 (undated). Pg. 96
American Indian or Alaskan Native Federal Definition: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.19
Anorexia Nervosa The most severe eating disorder, characterized by extreme, and often life-threatening, weight loss associated with a distorted body image and a pathological fear of gaining weight. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 134
Area Health Education Center (AHEC) An organization or organized system of health and educational institutions whose purpose is to improve the supply, distribution, quality, use and efficiency of health care personnel in medically underserved areas. An AHEC's objectives are to education and train the health personnel needed by the underserved area and to decentralize health workforce education, thereby increasing supply and linking the health and educational institutions. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.119
Asian Federal Definition: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.19
Asylees Refugees who are already present in the US at the time they apply for refugee status. They are eligible for the same benefits as refugees, but only 10,000 may become permanent residents each year in the US. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.15

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B

Benchmark An objective that is measurable and identifies a step you hope to achieve as you move towards your ultimate goal. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.119
Birth Defect A birth defect is defined as an abnormal condition that occurs before or at the time of birth. Birth defects include a wide range of abnormalities with varying levels of impact. Birth Defects Annual Report. January 2008
Black or African American Federal Definition: A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.19
Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) Blood lead levels (BLLs) as low as 10 µg/dl are associated with harmful effects on children's learning and behavior. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg. 40
Body Mass Index (BMI) Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. The formula for BMI is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Healthy body mass index (BMI) for the adult population is defined as 18.5 - 24.9 kilogram/meter2 (kg/m2). Overweight is defined as BMI 25.0 - 29.9 kg/m2. Obese is defined as BMI greater than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2. Underweight includes those under a BMI of 18.5. Both weight and height measures are self-reported. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.81
Body Mass Index (BMI) Weight (in pounds) divided by the square of height (in inches) times 704.5. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002) Chapter 9. Pg. 158
Body Mass Index - Childhood Age and gender specific charts are used for children and adolescents because girls and boys differ in their body fatness as they grow and mature. BMI 5% - 84%tile for age/gender are Ideal weight, BMI 85-94%tile for age/gender are overweight, and BMI=95%tile are obese. Physical Activity and Nutrition, Division of Chronic Disease, MCDC
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder that involves eating a lot of food (binge eating) and then eliminating it (purging), whether through self-induced vomiting or through the use of diuretics or other medications. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 134
Burden Burden is the average number of new cases and deaths that occurred during a given time period. Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Bureau of Insurance (BOI) Maine bureau with the Department of Professional and Financial Regulation charged with regulation of the insurance industry. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.119

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C

Cancer Cancer is not just one disease, but rather a group of diseases that includes a process of abnormal and uncontrolled growth and spread of cells. Cancers are caused by internal (genetic and hormonal) as well as external (viral, social, environmental) factors. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg.34
Cancer A population of abnormal cells showing a growth preference over their normal cellular counterparts. Maine Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan. 2006 - 2010. (undated) Pg. 96
Cancer Site The anatomical site (organ or organ system) in which the cancer starts, for example, the lungs, colon or bone marrow. Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Cancer Staging Staging of cancer is a way of categorizing how far a cancer has spread from its point of origin. Local stage disease is limited to the organ of origin. Regional stage disease has spread beyond the organ of origin into surrounding tissues, organs, or certain lymph nodes. Distant stage disease, metastasis, occurs when tumor cells break away from the tumor of origin and travel to other parts of the body and begin a new growth. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg.37
Cancer Stage The extent to which a cancer has progressed. Also see definition above. Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Capital Investment Fund (CIF) An annual limit is set on the third year operating costs of capital investments projects receiving CON approval in any given year. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease refers to a variety of diseases and conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels; the two largest being heart disease and stroke. Congestive heart failure, hypertension (also known as high blood pressure), and disease of the arteries, veins, and circulatory system are the other diseases and conditions that are included in the term cardiovascular disease. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg. 29
Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease refers to a group of diseases and conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, and is the leading killer of adults in Maine. Additional information is available at http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/population-health/hmp/mcvhp/index.html District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.21
Care / Case Management Case management assigns the administration of care for a patient to a single person (or team) to coordinate (sic) all necessary health care and supportive services needed. Case or care management tries to enhance access to care and improve the continuity and efficiency of services. Case or care managers may arrange need services for patients, assess the patient's needs, arrange for support services (housing, benefit programs, job training, etc.), and monitor medication and use of services. They are often used in primary care to assist with the coordination of care among multiple providers for patients with chronic illness. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.119
CarePartners A program being implemented in three Maine Counties in collaboration with MaineHealth to improve low income and uninsured Mainers' access to health care services and their health status. Under the program, low income Mainers are provided with access to comprehensive healthcare services, case management and low cost or free pharmaceuticals. Persons are eligible for CarePartners if they are uninsured, have a household income under 175% of the Federal Poverty Level, live in the program service area for at least six months, meet an assets test, and are not eligible for coverage through their employer or school. All persons enrolled in CarePartners are assigned a Primary Care Provider, (PCP) and Care Manager. The Care Manager helps enrollees to access needed health care, social and economic services in the community. All healthcare services, except for office visits and prescriptions are free. Patients pay $10 for an office visit and $5 for a month's supply of prescription drugs. Additional information is available at www.communitiesincharge.org/
Documents/PhaseII%
20PressRelease/Portland.htm
Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.119
Certificate of Need (CON) An approval process for the expansion of existing services or facilities that cost more than a certain amount, the establishment of new services, or substantial reduction in capacity of certain types of providers. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Certificate of Need Unit (CONU) The office that reviews the CON application. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Chlamydia Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection in men and women. In women, symptoms may be mild or absent, and can result in pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. It is more frequently diagnosed in younger adults and adolescents; and is preventable. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.49
Chronic Illness Disease of slow progression and long duration. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, mostly occurring in people over the age of 65. Between 80 and 90% of all COPD is due to tobacco smoke. Some of the remainder is due to other environmental respiratory hazards as seen in certain occupations and inherited disorders such as alpha one antitrypsin deficiency. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg. 27
Chronic Respiratory Diseases Chronic Respiratory diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Additional information is available at http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/population-health/mat/index.htm District Health Profiles (2007). Pg. 33
Class Members Class members are all persons who, on or after January 1, 1998, were admitted to the Augusta Mental Health Institute (AMHI) and all persons who will be admitted to AMHI in the future until the Maine Department of Behavioral and Developmental Services is found in compliance with a Maine Superior Court Consent Decree. Non class members are those individuals who may have received inpatient / hospital level of care, but not at AMHI during the time frames noted. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 135
Community-based care The blend of health, public health, and social services provided to an individual or family in their place of residence for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, or restoring health or minimizing the effects of illness and disability. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Community Health Centers (CHC) Community Health Centers are federally funded centers that provide access to care. Satellite sites serve additional locations, and CHCs are a core strategy to reduce barriers to access to care. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.73
Co-morbidity The co-existence of two or more diseases, including chronic illness. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Comprehensive School Health Education (CSHE) Comprehensive School Health Education (CSHE) includes curriculum, instruction, and assessment that is sequential from kindergarten through high school and that meets the health education standards outlined in the Maine Learning Results. CSHE addresses the physical, mental, emotional, and social aspects of health and provides knowledge and skills that promote and enhance lifelong healthy behaviors. CSHE is also most effective when delivered in the context of a coordinated school health program. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 1. Pg. 7
Confidence Interval A range around a measurement conveying the amount of precision. In general, the wider the range, the less precise the number.

 

For additional information, see Technical Notes

Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Consumer Someone who uses or buys products and services, natural or manufactured, In the State Health Plan the words payors and stakeholders are inclusive of consumers. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Cost-based reimbursement Payment made by a health plan payer to health care providers based on the actual costs incurred in the delivery of care and services to plan beneficiaries. MediCare and Medicaid often pay rural providers, such as Critical Access Hospitals and Federally Qualified Health Centers, on a cost basis. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Critical Access Hospital (CAH) The CAH program was designed to improve rural healthcare access and reduce hospital closures. Critical Access Hospitals provide essential services to a community and are reimbursed by Medicare on a "reasonable cost basis" for services provided to Medicare patients. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease cause by parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium, is recognized as a leading cause of waterborne disease in the United States. It is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can cause severe diarrhea, accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and low-grade fever. Cryptosporidiosis Surveillance Report - Maine, 2006 (undated). Pg. 1
Cultural Competency A set of behaviors and attitudes that enable us to understand and work effectively in cross-cultural situations. The result of cultural competency is the establishment of positive helping relationships that effectively engage people, and the significant improvement of quality of services such as public health and health care. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.29

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D

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) The department of Maine State government responsible for programs and services that support the health and well being of our neediest population. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Over time, especially without the benefits of proper medical care, organ complications can occur, including heart, nerve, foot, eye, and kidney damage. In the United States, diabetes is the leading cause of nontraumatic amputations, blindness among working-age adults, and end-stage kidney disease. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg.23
Diabetes Mellitus - Gestational Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): Development of diabetes during pregnancy by a woman who previously was not diagnosed with diabetes. GDM presents health risks to the fetus and newborn, and is a risk factor for the mother and offspring for developing diabetes in the future. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg.23
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Usually occurring in youth, the body does not produce insulin, and treatment must include insulin in combination with proper nutrition and physical activity. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg.23
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Usually occurring in people over the age of 30, but recently has been seen in increasing numbers in younger adults and children. Although persons with type 2 diabetes can produce insulin, their body is unable to effectively use the insulin. Treatment for type 2 diabetes can include oral medication and / or insulin, in combination with proper nutrition and physical activity. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg.23
Dirigo Choice Health care coverage designed to give Maine businesses with 50 or fewer employees, the self-employed, and individuals an affordable, high-quality option for health coverage. Enrollees receive discounts on monthly payments and reductions in deductibles and out-of-pocket expenses based on their income and family size. Discounts can be as high as 100%. DirigoChoice is a voluntary program with health insurance coverage provided through Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Maine. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Dirigo Health Initiative In addition to improving access to health care for Maine residents, the Dirigo Health Initiative was developed to contain costs and improve health care quality for Mainers. Through the initiative the Governor plans to contain costs by reducing bad debt and free care, strengthening the Certificate of need process, developing a capital investment fund, and creating transparency in prices. The strategies for improving quality are to improve the use of data and information technology to measure quality, to support the development of electronic medical records for all Mainers, and to provide informational resources to providers and consumers to assist them in making informed health care choices. The initiative will also include a biennial State health Plan to identify health problems and create strategies to make Maine the healthiest state in the country. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg121
Disability Defining disability is difficult. In the District Health Profiles (2007), we have defined an adult with disabilities as someone who has an activity limitation or a health problem requiring special equipment. For children, we present information on children in special education as a proxy for disability status. Additional information on disability is available for adults at www.maine.gov/dhhs/
OACPDS/DS/
and for children at http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/population-health/cshn/index.html
District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.8
Disability People with disabilities are generally identified as persons having an activity limitation, who use assistance, or who perceive themselves as having a disability. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Disability (2002). Pg. 42
Disease Management The process of identifying and delivering the most efficient and effective combination of resources and interventions for the treatment or prevention of a specific disease. Disease management can be provided by physicians and other health care providers, but is also frequently used by health insurance providers to improve care and contain costs. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.121
District Coordinating Councils (DCC) Councils in each of the 8 public health districts that work with local groups to find solutions to health and healthcare problems in their districts. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.121

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E

E-codes E-codes or "external cause of injury" codes are diagnostic categories, using the 9th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9). E-codes differ from nature of injury codes (N-codes) in providing data on the cause, rather than type, of injury. For example, a traumatic head injury, coded with an N-code, could result from, say, a car accident or gunshot wound, both coded with E-codes. Additionally, E-codes distinguish self-inflicted injuries, essential information for suicide surveillance. Maine Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Surveillance Report (2006). Pg. 19
Epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in people. That is, epidemiology is concerned with the frequency and types of illnesses in groups of people and with the factors that influence their distribution. For additional information, see Technical Notes. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Appendix. Pg. 180
Estimate We believe that there are true underlying >prevalence and disease rates. However, the best we can do is to obtain an estimate of this true underlying value. Every number reported is an estimate. We include margin of errors to remind us that we are engaged in an estimation process. For additional information, see Technical Notes. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.81
Ethnicity Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ancestry and includes concepts of culture, language, and national origin. Ethnic groups are often multiracial. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg. 15
Evidence-based Medicine The explicit and judicious use of current best evidence / practice in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The approach must balance the best external evidence with the desires of the patient and the clinical expertise of providers. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.121

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F

Family Life Education, Comprehensive Comprehensive family life education means education in kindergarten to grade 12 regarding human development and sexuality, including education on family planning and sexually transmitted diseases, that is medically accurate and age appropriate; that respects community values and encourages parental communication; that develops skills in communication, decision making and conflict resolution; that contributes to healthy relationships; that promotes responsible sexual behavior with an emphasis on abstinence; that addresses the use of contraception; that promotes individual responsibility and involvement regarding sexuality; and that reaches skills for responsible decision making regarding sexuality. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 4. Pg. 75
Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) A health center in a medically underserved area that is eligible to receive cost-based Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement and fees adjusted to ability to pay, governed by a community board comprised of 51% patients, and provide comprehensive primary health care and supportive services. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.121
Five-Year Relative Survival Rates The proportion of people, when other causes of death are taken into account, who are alive five years after diagnosis. Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Five-Year Trailing Average In some instances, five years of data are combined and the average across the five years presented. This is done to improve the stability of the estimates, which would otherwise fluctuate due to small numbers of occurrences. The five years "trail" or precede the year presented. For example, the 5 year trailing average for 2004 is calculated using data from the years 2000-2004.

 

For additional information, see Technical Notes

Maine Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Surveillance Report (2006). Pg. 19

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G

Gender Identity Gender identify is the gender that a person sees himself or herself as, regardless of external genitalia. Gender is, therefore, a social construct, and can change over time. Like sexual orientation, gender is on a continuum, and not an either / or concept. People who identify as "transgender" are generally felt to be people whose gender identity differs from the social expectations for the physical sex they were born with (e.g. women who feel like or identify as men). Some also use this term as an umbrella term to refer to anyone who transcends the traditional concept of gender. Transgender is also used sometimes to refer to those who cross-dress. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Sexual Orientation and other Sexual Minorities (2002). Pg. 64
Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men. However, while it can cause notable and painful symptoms in men, there may be no symptoms in women. Gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.51
Governor's Office on Health Planning and Finance Responsible for the coordination and planning of state health systems, the publishing of a biennial State Health Plan and making recommendations to the Governor and Legislature on improving Maine's health systems. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.121

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H

Health Care Network An affiliation of providers through formal and informal contracts and agreements. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008).Pg.122
Healthy Days

Survey data in BRFSS include a set of questions related to health-related quality of life entitled "Healthy Days", which ask a core set of questions related to how individuals have reported feeling in terms of their physical and mental health over the last 30 days. This provides an over-time measure of perception of well-being. Evidence suggests this can be used not only as a measure of individual health but as a proxy for measuring community level health.

For additional information, see Technical Notes

District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.72
Health Disparities Poor health status in our country is often associated with being a member of a population group whose definition has little to do with health per se. For instance, it is well documented that people in our country who are a member of a racial minority or who earn low wages suffer poorer health status, even through skin color and low wages do not themselves biologically or directly cause poor health. These inequalities in health status are also known as health disparities. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All (2002). Introduction. Pg. 1
Health Disparities Populations at risk for experiencing barriers to accessing health care and prevention. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 1. Pg. 4
Health Information Exchange (HIE) Health information exchange (HIE) refers to the sharing of clinical and administrative data across the boundaries of health care institutions and other health data repositories. Many stakeholder groups (doctors, patients, providers, and others) realize that if such data are shared health care processes would improve with respect to safety, quality, cost and other indicators. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.121
HealthInfoNet An independent, nonprofit organization created to develop a statewide clinical information sharing infrastructure for Maine. This infrastructure will permit the sharing of patient health care information across health care providers and organizations. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122
Health Information Technology (Health IT) Health information technology (Health IT) allows comprehensive management of medical information and its secure exchange between health care consumers and providers through the use of technology. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122
Healthy Maine Prescriptions As of July 2002, 114,000 Maine people are enrolled in Healthy Maine Prescriptions, a State program that offers its participants prescription drug discounts, usually about a 25% discount, generally based on the price pharmaceutical manufacturers are reimbursed by the State's Medicaid program. Drugs for the Elderly and Disabled (low-cost drug program) is a program component with approximately 36,000 enrollees that offers steeper discounts for qualified people. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 1. Pg. 11
Healthy Maine Partnership A community coalition funded to address health related concerns at the local level. Healthy Maine partnerships cover all towns in the state and are dispersed through eight Public Health district. Healthy Maine Partnerships, Division of Chronic Disease, MCDC
Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) are areas in which the State has identify a shortage of providers of (1) primary care, (2) dental care, or (3) mental health providers, using federal criteria for defining a shortage. These HPSAs do not include the eleven additional HPSAs that cover multiple districts. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.73
Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) Areas or communities with diminishing health care services for primary care, mental health, and dental health. Once designated a shortage area, the community becomes eligible for state and federal assistance to recruit and retain health professionals and access to additional reimbursement dollars. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122
Health-related Quality of Life

The concept of health-related quality of life refers to a person or group's perceived physical and mental health.

For additional information, see Technical Notes

District Health Profiles (2007). Pg. 72)
Hepatitis C, Chronic A virus that can damage the liver, cause cirrhosis, liver cancer or even death. It is the most common blood borne infection in the U.S. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.50
Hispanic or Latino Federal Definition: A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.19
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV is a virus that can weaken a person's immune system, leading to AIDS, a potentially fatal condition characterized by illnesses such as cancers, respiratory infections and uncontrolled weight loss. Additional information is available at http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/hiv-std/index.shtml District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.52
Home Health Care / Home Health Health services provided in the home to the aged, disabled, or sick who [sic] do not need institutional care. The most common services are nursing care, speech, physical, occupational and rehabilitation therapy, homemaker services, and social services. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122
Hospice Hospice in the United States has grown from a volunteer-led movement to improve care for people dying alone, isolated, or in hospitals, to a significant part of the health care system. In 2005 more than 1.2 million individuals and their families received hospice care. Hospice is the only Medicare benefit that includes pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, twenty-four hour / seven day a week access to care and support for loved ones following a death. The majority of hospice care is delivered at home. Hospice care is also available to people in homelike hospice residences, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, veterans' facilities, hospitals and prisons. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122

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I

Illegal Aliens Also known as undocumented immigrants, persons who enter or live in the US without official authorization. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.17
Immigrants Legal immigrants are admitted to the US based on family relation or job. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.17
Immunization 4:3:1:3:3:1 Represents 4DTaP, 3 Polio, 1 MMR, 3 hepatitis B, 3 Hib and 1 Varicella District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.46
Incidence The rate with which new cases of disease have developed, over a defined period of time, from within a previously disease-free population.

 

For additional information, see Technical Notes

District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.81
Incidence Rate The number of new cases of a disease occurring in a period of time divided by the size of the population at risk of becoming a case during that period of time. The result is often multiplied by a base number, such as 1,000 or 100,000.

 

For additional information, see Technical Notes

Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Incidence Rates, Age-specific The number of new cases diagnosed per 100,000 people, over a given time period for a specific age group.

 

For additional information, see Technical Notes

Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Infant Mortality - Neonatal Neonatal mortality is defined as death in the first 28 days of life. The leading causes of neonatal deaths are birth defects, disorders due to prematurity and low birth weigh, and pregnancy complications. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 4. Pg. 76
Infant Mortality - Post Neonatal Post neonatal mortality is defined as death from one month of age until the first birthday. The leading causes of post neonatal morality include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), birth defects, and injuries. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 4. Pg. 76
Infant Mortality Rate The number of children in a population who die before their first birthday divided by the number of live births in that population during the same time period. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.81
Injury - Intentional Intentional injuries are those that result from purposeful human action intended to cause harm directed to self or others. They account for one-third of all injury deaths. The most common intentional injuries are: suicide, homicide, self-injurious behavior, and assault such as physical and sexual assault, domestic violence and bullying. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 5. Pg. 106
Injury - Unintentional Unintentional injuries are those not expected or intended to take place, also known as "accidents". They account for two-thirds of all injury deaths. The most common unintentional injuries are: motor vehicle crashes, drowning, unintentional poisonings, falls, fires and suffocation. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 5. Pg. 106
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) A nonprofit organization created to improve health care quality. The organization developed the 100,000 lives campaign to assist hospitals in reducing preventable deaths. They recently developed the 5 million lives campaign with a goal of preventing five million incidents of medical harm by the end of 2008. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122
International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9) The Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Disease. The ICD-9 is published by the World Health Organization. Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICD-O) The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, the standards reference for classifying cancers. The ICD-O is a further classification of the ICD-9 that is specifically for classifying cancer. The ICD-O is published by the World Health Organization. Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Interoperability The ability of different information technology systems and software applications to communicate, to exchange data accurately, effectively, and consistently, and to use the information that has been exchanged. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122

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J

Joint Commission on Accreditation for Health Organizations (Joint Commission) An independent, not-for-profit organization that evaluates and accredits a variety of health care organizations, including hospitals, ambulatory care, long-term care, and laboratory services). The Joint Commission develops its own accreditation standards, which include a number of required patient safety goals. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122

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L

Lead Lead is a heavy metal that exerts toxic effects on brain cells, causing learning disabilities and behavior disorders in children as well as nerve damage in adults. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 3. Pg. 65
Leapfrog Group, The A voluntary program aimed at mobilizing employer purchasing power to alert America's health industry that big leaps in health care safety, quality and customer value will be recognized and rewarded. The organization's four leaps are focused on computerized physician order entry, evidence-based hospital referral, ICU physician staffing, and an assessment of providers' progress on achieving the National Quality Forum's 30 Safe Practices. Additional information is available at www.leapfroggroup.org/. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.122
Local Health Officer (LHO) A person employed by each municipality for the main purpose of linking municipal public health threats to Maine CDC / DHHS resources. LHOs are supervised by Maine CDC / DHHS. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.123
Lyme Disease Lyme Disease is a tick-borne illness. Additional information is available at http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/vector-borne/lyme/index.shtml District Health Profiles (2007). Pg. 55

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M

MaineCare As of July 2002, MaineCare is the new name for Maine's Department of Human Services' health insurance coverage programs. MaineCare is the new name for a variety of different products and programs, including: Medicaid, Cub Care, Maine PrimeCare, HealthWorks, MaineNet, Medical Eye Care, and EPSDT (Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Services). Healthy Maine Prescriptions is also a MaineCare product. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 1. Pg. 10
MaineCare Maine's Medicaid program. Medicaid provides low income children, pregnant women, and parents with health insurance coverage for little or no cost. The program also covers low income elderly and the disabled. Adults without children may be eligible through the non-categorical needy waiver, but this program has been limited in recent years. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.123
Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Maine CDC) Maine's public health agency is located in Maine DHHS. Maine CDC's mission is to preserve, protect, and promote the health of all Maine people. Divisions within the agency include: Chronic disease, Environmental Public Health, Family Health, Infectious Disease, and Public Health Systems. Maine's Office of Minority Health, Local Public Health, and Rural Health and Primary care are also located in the Maine CDC. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.120
Maine Department of Labor The State agency that enforces workforce safety issues within the public sector. Also provides voluntary non-enforcement assistance in public and private sector workplaces. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 8. Pg. 145
Maine Direct Care Worker Coalition An organization with representatives from long-term care which promotes policy and practices that respect and value direct care workers in order to sustain quality direct care in Maine. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.123
Maine Health Access Foundation (MEHAF) Founded in April 2000, MeHAF provides grant funding and other programs to address access to health care for Mainers, especially the uninsured and medically underserved. The organization provides approximately $5 million in grant and program funding annually. Additional information is available at www.mehaf.org Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg. 123
Maine Health Alliance A health care provider organization which promotes the ability of its member providers to deliver locally accessible, high quality, cost effective services in a changing healthcare environment. The organization achieves these objectives by interacting with purchasers of health care, improving care management, and other activities. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg. 123
Maine Health Data Organization Independent executive agency charged with collecting clinical and financial health care information and to exercise responsible stewardship in making this information accessible to the public. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg. 123
Maine Health Management Coalition A non-profit coalition of 34 employers that includes doctors, hospitals, insurers, and public and private employers. The coalition has focused on reducing the costs and improving the quality of health care in Maine. They have developed the Pathways to Excellence programs for primary care providers and hospitals. Additional information is available at www.mhmc.info Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.123
Maine Primary Care Association (MPCA) An association of health centers providing comprehensive primary care to all, regardless of insurance coverage or the ability to pay. They provide a variety of outreach and community level programs. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.123
Maine Quality Forum (MQF) An independent division of Dirigo Health, whose mission is to advocate for high quality healthcare and help each Maine citizen make informed healthcare choices and continue Maine's leadership in assuring high quality healthcare for its citizens. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg. 123
Maine State Employees Health Plan A health insurance plan that provides health insurance for employees of Maine State Government. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg. 123
Margin of Error (ME)

The margin of error is a measure of the degree of uncertainty in an estimate, such as prevalence or rate, often due to the estimate stemming from a sampled portion of the population. Consider this, a survey finds that 25 percent of adults in Maine have high blood pressure and the survey's margin of sampling error is plus or minus 1.6 percentage points. The estimate, 25 percent, is considered the most likely value, but we consider a range of plausible values between 23.4 and 26.6 percent (25 - 1.6 and 25 + 1.6). This range is sometimes referred to as the 95 percent confidence interval. In 95 out of 100 samples, we expect the 95 percent confidence interval to reflect (sic) the true value. If the range of estimates based on the margin of error between the state and the district overlap, then it is unlikely that there is a statistically significant difference between the district and the state on that indicator.

For additional information, see Technical Notes.

District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.81
Median

The median is the number in the middle of a listing of all values by magnitude. This differs from the mean (sometimes called the average), which is a sum of all values divided by the number of values. For example, if a sample of 5 individuals report that their daily fruit and vegetable consumption is 3, 5, 8, 9 and 10 servings, we calculate a median of 8 and a mean of 7.

For additional information, see Technical Notes.

District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.81
Medicaid Primarily a health insurance program for low-income parents (mostly mothers) and children; a long-term care program for elders; and a funding source for services to people with disabilities. Created as Title XIX of the Social Security Act of 1965, Medicaid is a joint Federal and State program administered by the states and funded by both. In Maine, about two-thirds of services reimbursed by Medicaid are paid for by the Federal government, and one-third by State taxpayers. As of July 2002, Medicaid in Maine is known as MaineCare Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 1. Pg. 10
Medicaid A federal health coverage program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. It is an entitlement program that is jointly funded by the states and federal government, and is managed by the states. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg. 123
MediCare The Federal health insurance program for people age 65 and older and certain people with disabilities or end-stage renal disease. Unlike Medicaid, MediCare is administered by the Federal government. Part A of MediCare covers hospital inpatient services, home health services, limited skilled nursing facility services, and hospice care. Part B covers physician services, hospital outpatient care, laboratory services, durable medical equipment, and other ambulatory care. MediCare does not cover most nursing home care or other long-term care service, or most out-patient prescription drugs. MediCare covers only about half the health care expenditures of older Americans. About 5% of the nation's nursing home bills are covered by MediCare, compared to about 50% by Medicaid. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 1. Pg. 10
MediCare A social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people who are either age 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124
Melanoma The most serious type of skin cancer. Maine Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan. 2006 - 2010 (undated). Pg. 96
Mental Disorder Health conditions that are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior that are associated with distress and / or impaired functioning and spawn a host of human problems that may include disability, pain, or death. Health Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 132
Mental Health A state of successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity. Health Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 132
Mental Illness All diagnosable mental disorders. Health Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 132
Migrant Workers People who move to different geographical regions on a seasonal basis according to job availability. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.17
Mortality A fatal outcome, death. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.82
Mortality Rate The number of deaths attributed to a disease during a specific period of time divided by the size of the population during that period of time. The result is often multiplied by a base number, such as 1,000 or 100,000 Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49

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N

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Federal definition: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.19
Neural tube defect Neural tube defects, including spina bifida, occur when the fetal neural tube fails to close fully, interrupting development of the central nervous system. About half of all neural tube defects can be prevented when women take adequate folic acid from one month before conception through the first three months of pregnancy. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 4. Pg. 77

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O

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Apnea occurs when there are repeated involuntary breathing pauses during sleep. Symptoms include intermittent snoring, frequent awakening from sleep, early morning headaches, excessive daytime sleepiness, and poor work or school performance. Sleep apnea is associated with higher risks for cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, asthma, and motor vehicle crashed. Health Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg.27
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Part of the US Department of Labor: the Federal agency that enforces worksite safety issues within the private sector. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 8. Pg. 145
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is the reduction in bone mass that results in deteriorated and fragile bones. It is a leading cause of disability among our elderly, especially women. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 2. Pg. 47
Ozone Ozone is an odorless, colorless gas composed of three atoms of oxygen. Occurring naturally in the upper atmosphere, it forms a protective layer that shields us from the sun's ultraviolet rays. It also occurs near ground level when pollutants from cars, power plants, and refineries react chemically in sunlight, forming ozone. Ground-level ozone is found in Maine primarily during hot summer days and causes irritation to people's respiratory systems, especially to children and people with chronic lung disease such as asthma. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 3. Pg. 62

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P

Pap Test A screening test for cervical cancer developed by Dr. Papanicolaou. Maine Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan. 2006 - 2010 (undated). Pg. 97
Parolees People who would not normally be admissible but are allowed to enter temporarily for humanitarian, legal, or medical reasons. They are not eligible for Federal benefits or predestined permanent residency status, except for some Cubans and Haitians. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.17
Percentage A ration where the value for the numerator is included in the total denominator. Prevalence is a percentage. The prevalence of diabetes is the number of people with diabetes divided by the entire population, with and without diabetes.

 

For additional information, see Technical Notes.

District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.82
Perinatal Health Pertaining to the period immediately before and after birth. The perinatal period is defined in diverse ways. Depending on the definition, it starts at the 20th to 28th week of gestation and ends 1 to 4 weeks after birth. MedicineNet.com
Pesticides Pesticides are agents that kill, control, or repel undesirable and sometimes harmful organisms. They include herbicides, rodenticides, insecticides, disinfectants, fungicides, insect repellents, and antimicrobial pesticides. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 3. Pg. 67
Population Health Status Key health measures reflecting the health status of groups who share one or more characteristic in common. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.16
Poverty Poverty is defined by a cross-classification of family size (taking into account the number of individuals under 18) by combined family income. Threshold for poverty (2006) can be found at www.census.gov/hhes/www/
poverty/threshld/thresh06.html
District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.82
Prevalence

The percent of the population with a particular condition or characteristic. It is calculated as the number of people in a population who have a health condition divided by the total number of people in the population.

For additional information, see Technical Notes

District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.82
Prevalence

The proportion of a defined population affected by a disease at a specified point in time. The numerator of the proportion comprises all those who have the disease at that instant, regardless of whether it was diagnosed recently or long ago. Diseases with a long duration tend to have a higher prevalence than short-term illnesses.

For additional information, see Technical Notes

Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Prevention Any activity which reduces the burden of mortality or morbidity from disease. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008).Pg.124
Primary Care A term used for the activity of a health care provider who acts as a first point of consultation for all patients. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124
Public Health The study and practice of managing threats to the health of a community and pays special attention to the social context of disease and health, and focuses on improving health through society-wide measures. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124
Public Health District There are eight Public Health Districts within the state of Maine. These Districts generally fall along County lines and are the base units for Public Health planning. Healthy Maine Partnership, Division of Chronic Disease, MCDC
Public Health Nurses [PHNs] Public Health Nurses are registered professional nurses, who are employed directly by the Maine CDC and deliver public health nursing services, expertise and leadership to individuals, families and organizations across Maine. District Health Profiles (2007).Pg.75

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Q

Quality Counts A multi-stakeholder organization whose major mission is advancement of the "care model" (planned care model) for chronic disease management. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124

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R

Radon Radon is an odorless and colorless gas and exists in varying concentrations in geographic areas in Maine. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Additional information on radon in the home is available at http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/environmental-health/rad/index.htm District Health Profiles (2007). Pg. 41
Race

Race is a sociological characteristic - generally thought of as a characteristic by which one is identified by others. Often these characteristics are related to skin color and / or facial features. Genetic studies have thoroughly discredited the concept of race as a biological characteristic.

For additional information, see Technical Notes.

Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.15
Rate

A measure of new events or occurrences in a population. The crude rate is calculated as the number of events per time period divided by the total number of people in the population in the same time period. The crude rate represents the actual burden of disease in the population.

For additional information, see Technical Notes

District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.82
Refugees Persons who flee their country due to a well-founded fear of persecution because of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a social group. They are eligible for some Federal assistance programs and to work in this country upon arrival, as well as for permanent residency after one year. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.17
Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO) Multi-stakeholder organizations expected to be responsible for motivating and causing integration and information exchange in the nation's revamped healthcare system. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124
Relative Risk Relative Risk is a common measure used to show the magnitude of an association, and is often examined in making a judgment pertaining to causality. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Appendix. Pg. 180
Rural Places with fewer than 2,500 residents. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Rural and Urban (2002). Pg. 57
Rural Health Clinic (RHC) The Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) program is intended to increase primary care services for Medicaid and Medicare patients in rural communities. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124

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S

Salmonella Salmonellosis is a food borne illness. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.57
Schizophrenia A mental disorder lasting for at least six months, including at least one month with two or more active-phase symptoms. Active phase symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, and other symptoms. Schizophrenia is accompanied by marked impairment in social or occupational functioning, but symptoms tend to wax and wane. Increasing number of people with schizophrenia are doing well with modern treatments, and recovery is increasingly an achievable goal. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 7. Pg. 133
Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke is the unfiltered smoke coming off the tip of the cigarette and the side stream smoke exhaled by the smoker. Secondhand smoke is also found with pipe and cigar smoking. Since it is mostly unfiltered, secondhand smoke contains higher concentrations of many of the harmful chemicals found in cigarette smoke. Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with unhealthy low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), childhood pneumonia, childhood and adult asthma, childhood ear infections, heart disease, emphysema, and lung cancer. Secondhand smoke is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency and others as a Class A carcinogen, in the most toxic class of all cancer-causing chemicals - that for which there is no safe human exposure. Healthy Maine 2010 (2000). Chapter 10. Pg. 170
Self-Injurious Behavior Self-injurious behavior is defined as the deliberate destruction or alteration of body tissue without suicidal intent among adolescents. Maine Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Surveillance Report. (2006). Pg. 16
Sexual Identity Sexual identity (also sex identity) is how one sees oneself physically: male, female, in between, or not identified. Some also define this term as how one thinks of oneself in terms of whom one is sexually and romantically attracted to. Transsexual generally refers to a person who experiences a mismatch of the sex they were born as and the sex they identify as. Sometimes they undergo medical treatment to change their physical sex to match their sex identify. Sometimes transsexual refers only to those who have chosen medical treatment. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Sexual Orientation and other Sexual Minorities (2002). Pg. 64
Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation is often considered the deep-seated direction of one's sexual attraction. There is not a set of absolute categories, but a continuum. Included in this continuum are heterosexuality (sexual, emotional, and / or romantic attraction to a sex other than one's own), homosexuality (sexual, emotional, and / or romantic attraction to the same sex), or bisexuality (sexual, emotional, and / or romantic attraction to two sexes or two genders). Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Sexual Orientation and other Sexual Minorities (2002). Pg. 64
Shiga Toxin Producing E.coli (stec) stec is a leading cause of food borne illness in Maine. It is a source of the food-borne illness associated with the life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), particularly in children under five years old. It can result in death; and it causes fear and disruption for communities and businesses. Additional information is available at www.cdc.gov/ecoli/ District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.58
State Coordinating Council (SCC) The statewide group that advises on the implementation of the public health infrastructure and assure efficient and effective public health functions. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124
Statistically Significant

The difference between two rates is considered statistically significant if the difference would have occurred by chance less than five times out of 100. If a difference is statistically significant, it is not likely due to random chance.

For additional information, see Technical Notes

Cancer Incidence & Mortality in Maine. 1997 - 1998 (2001). Pg. 49
Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) The Strategic National Stockpile is a national program that provides large quantities of medicine and medical supplies to protect the American public if there is a public health emergency (terrorist attack, flu outbreak, and earthquake) severe enough to exhaust local supplies. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.80
Substance Abuse Treatment Admission Substance abuse treatment includes all admissions for those whose lives are directly impacted by the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Evaluation only admissions are clients who are referred to substance abuse services for the purpose of determining their need for treatment. Referrals originate from, but are not exclusive to, the Driver Education and Evaluation Program (DEP), child welfare services, and probation. District Health Profiles (2007). Pgs70-71.

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T

Telehealth / Telemedicine A rapidly developing application of clinical medicine where medical information is transferred via telephone, the Internet or other networks for the purpose of consulting, and sometimes remote medical procedures or examinations. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg.124
Title X Passed by Congress in 1970, Title X of the Public Health Service Act provides funding and regulations pertaining to family planning. As a result, a broad range of effective and medically approved family planning services are provided for across the country. Healthy Maine 2010 (2002). Chapter 4. Pg. 76
Tribal Health Departments Tribal Health Departments are dedicated to the needs of members of Tribal Nations. There are five Tribal Health Centers in Maine that receive some funding from HIS. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.73
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is an airborne bacterial infection. District Health Profiles (2007). Pg.54

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U

Underinsurance Not having sufficient health insurance coverage requiring out of pocket expenses that exceed affordability based on income. Maine's 2008-2009 State Health Plan (2008). Pg. 124

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W

White Federal definition: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Healthy Maine 2010. Opportunities for All. Race and Ethnicity (2002). Pg.19

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