Healthcare Associated Infection Program (HAI) - Specific Information
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections. More severe or potentially life-threatening MRSA infections occur most frequently among patients in healthcare settings.
Surgical Site Infection (SSI)
A SSI surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. Surgical site infections can sometimes be superficial infections involving the skin only. Other surgical site infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. CDC provides guidelines and tools to the healthcare community to help end surgical site infections and resources to help the public understand these infections and take measures to safeguard their own health.
Clostridium difficile [klo–strid–ee–um dif–uh–seel] is a bacterium that causes an inflammation of the colon; this condition is called colitis. Diarrhea and fever are the most common symptoms of Clostridium difficile infection. Overuse of antibiotics is the most important risk for getting Clostridium difficile infection. [Clostridium difficile is also called C. difficile, C. diff, and CDI (Clostridium difficile infection), CDAD(Clostridium difficile-associated disease)]
- CDC – C. difficile FAQs (pdf*)
- CDC – C. difficile webpage
- Protocol for Prevention of C. difficile Transmission in Long Term Care (Word | PDF)
Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI)
A central line is a tube that healthcare providers place in a large vein in the neck, chest, or arm to give fluids, blood, or medications or to do medical tests quickly. A central line-associated bloodstream infection is a serious infection that occurs when germs enter the bloodstream through a central line. CDC provides guidelines and tools to the healthcare community to help end central line-associated bloodstream infections and resources to help the public understand these infections and take measures to safeguard their own health when possible.
Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI)
A catheter-associated urinary tract infection is an infection caused by germs in the urinary system that enters through a catheter that is used during a hospital or nursing home stay. A catheter is a tube inserted into the bladder to drain urine. These infections affect the bladder (which stores the urine) and the kidneys (which filter the blood to make urine). CDC provides guidelines and tools to the healthcare community to help end catheter-associated urinary tract infections and resources to help the public understand these infections and take measures to safeguard their own health.
Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP)
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a lung infection that develops in a person who is on a ventilator. A ventilator is a machine that is used to help a patient breathe by giving oxygen through a tube placed in a patient’s mouth or nose, or through a hole in the front of the neck. An infection may occur if germs enter through the tube and get into the patient’s lungs. CDC provides guidelines and tools to the healthcare community to help end ventilator-associated pneumonia and resources to help the public understand these infections and take measures to safeguard their own health when possible.
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE)
Vancomycin [van–kō–mī–sin]-resistant Enterococci [en–ter–ō–kō–kī] are specific types of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin, the drug often used to treat infections caused by enterococci. Enteroccocci are bacteria that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract and are often found in the environment. These bacteria can sometimes cause infections. Most vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections occur in hospitals. [Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci is also called VRE]