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Home > Plant Lists > Native Trees

Native Trees

Key:

  • F=full sunlight
  • P=partial shade
  • S=shade
  • H=hydric; wet, periodically or often inundated by water
  • M=mesic; moist, adequate soil moisture retention all year
  • S=sub-xeric; moist to dry, seasonally moist, periodically dry
  • X=xeric; dry and drought resistant, little moisture retention, excessively drained

NAME

LIGHT

MOISTURE

HEIGHT

COMMENTS

Common

Scientific

Balsam fir

Abies balsamea

F,P

M

75'

Open growth in hot, dry locations; evergreen

Red maple, Swamp maple

Acer rubrum

F,P

M

60'

Excellent fall color; tolerates wet spring soils

Sugar maple, Rock maple

Acer saccharum

F,P

M

75'

Excellent orange-red fall color; beautiful large shade tree

Mountain maple

Acer spicatum

F,P

M

30'

Useful in naturalizing

Yellow birch

Betula alleghaniensis

F,P

M

100'

Does best in cool soils and cool summers; beautiful bark; long lived

Paper birch

Betula papyrifera

F

M

70'

Beautiful white bark year-round; tolerates poor, dry soils

Gray birch

Betula populifolia

F

M

40'

Does well in poor soils; good for naturalizing

American hornbeam, Blue-beech

Carpinus caroliniana spp. virginiana

F

M

30'

Good for naturalizing; tolerates periodic flooding

Pagoda dogwood

Cornus alternifolia

F,P

M

M 25'

Moist soil is important; white flowers in early June

Cockspur thorn

Crataegus crus-galli

F

M

30'

Glossy green leaves; 2" thorns; persistent dark red fruits

White ash

Fraxinus americana

F

M

80'

Handsome large tree; good fall leaf color; tolerates alkaline soil

Green ash

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

F,P

M

60'

Faster-growing than white ash; tolerates salty, dry and alkaline soil

Larch, Hackmatack, Tamarack

Larix laricina

F

H,M

80''

Good in well-drained and moist-to-wet naturalized sites

Black gum

Nyssa sylvatica

F,P

M

50'

Excellent yellow-orange fall leaf color

American hophornbeam

Ostrya virginiana

F,P

M,S

40'

Slow to establish after transplanting; good medium-sized tree

White spruce, Cat spruce

Picea glauca

F,P

M

60'

Good specimen or windbreak; evergreen

Black spruce

Picea mariana

F,P

M

40'

Tolerates wet sites; evergreen

Jack pine

Pinus banksiana

F

S,X

50'

Useful for windbreaks or mass plantings in sandy soil; evergreen

Red pine, Norway pine

Pinus resinosa

F

S,X

80'

Good windbreak; tolerates dry soils well; evergreen

White pine

Pinus strobus

F

M,S

80'

Handsome specimen; not tolerant of salt; evergreen

Bigtooth aspen

Populus grandidentata

F

M,S

70'

Fast growing, short lived; good yellow fall leaf color

Quaking aspen, Trembling aspen

Populus tremuloides

F

M

50'

Fast growing, short lived; good yellow fall leaf color

Pin cherry, fire cherry, bird cherry

Prunus pensylvanica

F

M

35'

Adaptable; fast growing; tolerates poor soil

Black cherry

Prunus serotina

F

M

60'

Interesting black bark; white flowers in spring; wildlife food source

White oak

Quercus alba

F

M

80'

Large tree; transplant when young

Northern red oak

Quercus rubra

F

M

75'

Transplants readily; good fall red leaf color

Black willow

Salix nigra

F

H,M

35'

Tolerates wet soils; twigs can cause lawn litter

American mountainash

Sorbus americana

F

M

30'

Fruits good in wildlife landscape

Northern white-cedar, Arborvitae

Thuja occidentalis

F,P

M

60'

Useful hedge or specimen plant; tolerates alkaline soil

Basswood, American linden

Tilia americana

F,P

M

80'

Large tree; tolerates alkaline soil; good for urban landscape

Eastern hemlock

Tsuga canadensis

F,P,S

M

70'

Graceful evergreen; does not tolerate drought or windy sites

This information is provided from the University of Maine Cooperative Extension's Bulletin #2500.

It was made possible by Friends of Acadia, Garden Club Federation of Maine, Josselyn Botanical Society, Maine Natural Areas Program/Maine Department of Conservation, Maine Department of Agriculture, Maine Landscape and Nursery Association, Maine Outdoor Heritage Fund, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, National Park Service, Native Plant Conservation Initiative, The Nature Conservancy, University of Maine Cooperative Extension, University of Maine Horticulture Club and the USDA Forest Service.