Your Woodland: Glossary of Forestry Terms


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Download pdf version of this glossary

A
acre
View definition a unit of land equal to 43,560 square feet; a square parcel of land approximately 208.5 feet on each side.
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aesthetics
View definition the forest value, rooted in beauty and visual appreciation, affording inspiration, contributing to the arts, and providing a special quality of life.
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all-aged stand
View definition see unevenaged stand.
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annual rings
View definition see growth rings.
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aspect
View definition the compass direction toward which a slope faces.
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B
basal area
View definition the crosssectional area of the trunk 4 1/2 feet above the ground; most commonly used as an indicator of stand density and expressed as square feet per acre. A tree with a 14” diameter has a basal area of just over one square foot.
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basal area factor prism
View definition an instrument used by Foresters to determine the stocking of the forest.
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best management practices (BMPs)
View definition voluntary guidelines developed by the Maine Forest Service and Land Use Regulation Commission (LURC), determined to be the most effective and practicable means of minimizing erosion and sedimentation of water bodies (streams, ponds, lakes, rivers, etc.) from logging activities.
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biltmore stick
View definition a tool calibrated to measure the diameter of a tree at breast height.
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biological diversity or biodiversity
View definition the variety of life in all its forms and all its levels of organization. Biodiversity refers to diversity of genetics, species, ecosystems, and landscapes.
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biomass
View definition often the lowest value forest product. Usually consists of stems, branches, bark, etc., that cannot be marketed in any other way. Chipped and used as fuel.
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blaze
View definition to remove a spot of bark from a tree, usually with an axe, to make a semipermanent mark. Commonly painted to indicate boundary lines.
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blowdown
View definition any area on which (many of) the trees have been thrown or broken by the wind. See windthrow.
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board foot
View definition a unit for measuring wood volume in a tree, log, or board. A board foot is 1 foot by 1 foot by 1 inch, but any shape containing 144 cubic inches of wood equals one board foot. Usually used for sawlog material only. A common symbol is MBF, which designates one thousand board feet.
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bole
View definition the trunk or main stem of a tree.
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breast height
View definition 4-1/2 feet above ground level. See diameter at breast height.
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browse
View definition twigs, shoots, and leaves of woody plants used as food by woodland mammals such as deer, moose and snowshoe hare.
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buck
View definition to saw a felled tree into shorter lengths. A skilled logger knows the markets and can increase the value of the tree by bucking it to fit the available markets.
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buffer strip
View definition a narrow zone or strip of land, trees, or vegetation bordering an area. Common examples include visual buffers, which screen the view along roads, and streamside buffers, which are used to protect water quality. Vegetation left along a stream, lake or wetland to protect aquatic life and water quality. Buffer strips filter sediment, provide food, maintain cool water tempertures, and may increase diversity within a landscape.
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bumper tree
View definition trees near skid trails used as pivot points to turn a load of logs, usually resulting in severe injury to the bumper trees. In skid trail layout, bumper trees are left in place to protect high-quality trees from skidding damage.
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butt log
View definition a log cut from the bole immediately above the stump.
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C
canopy
View definition the more or less continuous cover formed by tree crowns in a forest.
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chopper
View definition see logger.
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clearcut
View definition a forest harvesting practice in which most or all trees are removed from a site. Clearcuts are used for immediate commercial purposes and for regeneration of future forests. Clearcuts in Maine are defined by state statute.
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codominant tree
View definition a tree that extends its crown into the canopy and receives direct sunlight from above but limited sunlight from the sides. One or more sides of a codominant tree are crowded by the crowns of dominant trees.
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commercial clearcut
View definition a harvest cut that removes all merchantable timber from the area. See high grading.
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commercial thinning
View definition harvests which are aimed primarily at controlling the growth of stands through adjustment in stand density. Trees removed are useful and of value for some purpose. Income from the sale or use of products produced exceeds ALL costs associated with harvesting and removing timber.
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community
View definition a collection of living organisms thriving in an organized system through which water, energy, and nutrients cycle.
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competition
View definition the struggle between trees to obtain sunlight, nutrients, water, and growing space.
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conifer
View definition commonly called softwoods or evergreens. Although there are exceptions, most coniferous trees have cones and keep their needles through the winter.
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conservation easement
View definition a legal agreement between a property owner and a qualified conservation organization or agency that restricts the uses which may be made of the property. Most conservation easements limit or prohibit development of the land for commercial, industrial, and residential uses in perpetuity.
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consulting Forester
View definition an independent professional who provides services to private woodland owners. Services may include expert advice, preparation of Woodland Management Plans, appraisal of timber value, and planning and oversight of timber harvesting. Consulting Foresters do not have direct connections with firms that buy wood products, but are retained by woodland owners as their agents. See Forester.
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contract
View definition a formal, written, legally binding form of communication (agreement). In forestry, a contract is recommended between a landowner and a logger before harvesting timber, and between a landowner and a Forester for any work expected to exceed several hundred dollars.
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cord
View definition a unit of volume used in measuring wood products. A standard cord occupies 128 cubic feet of space and contains approximately 85 cubic feet of wood. It is commonly described as a close piled stack of wood 4 feet high, 8 feet long, with sticks 4 feet in length. A cord is the legal measure of fuelwood volume in Maine.
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cordwood
View definition small diameter or low-quality wood suitable for firewood, pulp, or chips. Cordwood is not suitable for sawlogs.
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cost share assistance
View definition an assistance program offered by various state and federal agencies that pays a fixed rate or percentage of the total cost necessary to implement a forestry practice. crook – a tree defect characterized by a sharp bend in the main stem.
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crop tree
View definition those trees in a stand destined to form the final crop, usually the highest quality and value of all the trees in a stand. Crop trees may be selected from an immature stand and carried through to the final harvest.
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crotch
View definition see fork.
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crown
View definition the live branches, twigs, and foliage of a tree.
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crown classes
View definition a classification of the position of an individual tree’s crown relative to the rest of the forest canopy. See codominant, dominant, intermediate, overtopped, and suppressed.
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crown closure
View definition the percentage of a given area covered by tree crowns.
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crown ratio or live-crown ratio
View definition the ratio of the length of live crown of a tree to its total height. Live crown ratio is usually expressed as a percentage of total height.
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cruise
View definition a systematic, statistically valid forest inventory used to obtain qualitative information about the forest. A cruise is often the first step in developing a Woodland Management Plan; the estimate obtained in such a survey.
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cull
View definition trees or logs which are rejected, or volumes deducted in log scaling because of a defect.
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cutting cycle
View definition the period of time between major harvests in a stand, usually determined by the type of management being practiced, the condition and type of the forest, and the growing conditions of the soil.
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D
deciduous
View definition shedding or losing leaves annually. Trees such as maple, ash, cherry, and larch are deciduous.
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deed
View definition a legal document usedto transfer title in real property from one person to another.
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defect
View definition any irregularity or imperfection on a tree, log, or other wood product that reduces the volume of usable wood or lowers its durability, strength, or utility value. Defects may result from knots and other growth conditions and abnormalities; from insect or fungus attack; or from logging, or other processing procedures.
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den tree
View definition a tree with holes or cavities suitable for birds or mammals to nest in.
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diameter at breast height (dbh)
View definition standard measurement of a tree's average diameter, outside the bark, taken at 4 1/2 feet above the ground.
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diameter-limit sale
View definition a timber sale in which all trees over a specified diameter may be cut. Most Maine forests are even-aged and small diameter trees are as old, although not as vigorous as the larger stems. Diameter-limit sales often result in high grading. This type of cutting is not usually regarded as wise, longterm forest management as it can cause the loss of stand vigor from the removal of the fastest-growing trees.
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dimension lumber
View definition wood products that are sawn from logs. Hardwood dimension lumber is often used in the manufacture of furniture or other products. Softwood dimension lumber is most commonly used in construction, furniture, and other products.
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disturbance
View definition a change in forest cover caused by natural or human causes. Common forest disturbances in New England include clearing for agriculture, abandonment of agricultural fields, windstorms, ice storms, fire, flood, logging, mining, and development.
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dominant
View definition trees whose crowns extend above those of surrounding trees which capture sunlight from above and on one or more side of the crown.
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duff
View definition forest litter of organic debris (in various stages of decomposition) on top of the mineral soil.
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E
easement
View definition see conservation easement.
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ecology
View definition the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
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ecosystem
View definition organisms and the physical, chemical, and biological factors that make up their environment.
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edge
View definition the boundary between two ecological communities, for example, field and woodland. Edges often provide habitat for certain wildlife species.
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endangered or threatened species
View definition a species is endangered when the total number of remaining members may not be sufficient to reproduce enough offspring to ensure survival of the species. A threatened species exhibits declining or dangerously low populations but still has enough members to maintain or increase numbers.
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epicormic branching
View definition branches that grow out of the main stem of a hardwood tree from dormant buds produced under the bark, usually in response to damage or an increase in light. Severe epicormic branching increases knottiness and reduces lumber quality.
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even-aged stand
View definition a stand in which most trees originated around the same time (i.e. the age difference between the oldest and youngest trees is minimal, usually no greater than 10 to 20 years.) Even-aged stands result from cutting of all the trees in a stand within a relatively short period of time, major natural disturbances (such as fire), or reversion of cleared land to forest.
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even-aged management
View definition managing a forest or forest stand to produce a forest of trees of the same relative age. Even-aged management techniques include intermediate treatments, clearcuts, patch clearcuts, and shelterwood cuts.
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F
felling
View definition the cutting of standing trees.
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filter strip
View definition an area of forest adjacent to a water body where measures are taken to limit disturbance of the forest floor (natural vegetation, soil, and forest litter, or fallen leaves and branches) to prevent erosion during or after timber harvesting.
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flagging
View definition the act of temporarily designating the location of a road, trail, or boundary by hanging strips of colored plastic on trees or stakes.
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forest
View definition a biological community dominated by trees and other woody plants.
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forest fragmentation
View definition the division of large natural landscapes into smaller, more isolated fragments, due to development, road construction, or other changes. Fragmentation affects the viability of wildlife populations and ecosystems, and may reduce options for forest management by reducing woodlot size.
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forest management
View definition the application of sound forestry principles and practices to the operation of the woodlands.
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Forest Management Plan (also called Woodland Management Plan or FMP)
View definition a written document, based on landowner objectives and resources on the ground, which guides future activities to care for the land and accomplish the landowner’s objectives over the long term. Plans may consider many resources including wildlife, recreational opportunities, aesthetics, timber, water, soil, wetlands, unique features, and cultural resources.
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forest types
View definition associations of tree species that have similar ecological requirements. Some common forest types in Maine are spruce-fir, northern hardwoods, pine-oak, and poplar birch. Often types are simplified into hardwood, softwood, and mixed wood.
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forested wetland
View definition an area dominated by woody vegetation taller than 20 feet where soil is at least periodically saturated or covered by water.
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forester
View definition a professional, usually with a college or university degree, trained in forestry and forest management. In Maine, all Foresters must be licensed by the state.
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forestry
View definition the art, science, and craft of tending woodlands to derive benefits to humans.
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fork
View definition a tree defect characterized by the division of a bole or main stem into two or more stems.
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form
View definition with reference to a tree, the degree of taper between diameter at the tip of a 1 foot stump and diameter at the top of the first 16 foot log.
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G
girdle/girdling
View definition the removal or killing of a ring of bark around the tree stem so that the flow of carbohydrates from crown to roots is blocked. The roots die and the whole tree is killed. Usually used to create a snag for wildlife habitat or to eliminate the influence of a large tree’s presence in the canopy without actually felling the tree.
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grade
View definition the rise or fall in ground level over 100 feet of horizontal distance, expressed as a percentage
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grade log
View definition the designation of the quality of a manufactured piece of wood or of logs.
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great pond
View definition any natural inland body of water with surface area over 10 acres, or artificially created or increased body of water over 30 acres.
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group selection
View definition a method of regenerating uneven-aged stands of trees by removing/ harvesting trees in small groups or patches. Group selection typically encourages the reproduction of tree species that are somewhat to moderately tolerant of shade.
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growing stock
View definition trees capable of producing at least one 12-foot sawlog now or in the future.
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growth rings
View definition the layers of wood a tree adds each growing season. These rings frequently are visible when a tree is cut and can be used to estimate its age and growth rate.
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H
habitat
View definition the ecosystem in which a plant or animal lives and depends on for cover, breeding sites, food, and water.
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hardwoods
View definition a general term encompassing broadleaf, deciduous trees.
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hardwood type
View definition a forest in which hardwood tree species comprise at least 75% of the stand.
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harvest
View definition the cutting, felling, and removal of forest timber or other forest materials.
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harvester
View definition a person or machine who carries out a harvest.
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herbaceous vegetation
View definition low-growing, non-woody plants, including wildflowers and ferns, in a forest understory.
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high grading
View definition an exploitive logging practice that removes only the best, most accessible, and valuable trees from a stand, leaving lower-quality trees to grow into a lowerquality forest. High grading should be distinguished from even-aged management in which mature and immature trees are removed to aid regeneration.
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I
improvement cut
View definition an intermediate treatment to improve the growth rate and vigor of residual trees. An intermediate cut made to improve the form, quality, health, or wildlife potential of the residual stand.
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increment borer
View definition an augerlike tool with a hollow bit designed to extract cores from tree stems for the determination of age and growth rate.
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intermediate tree
View definition trees with crowns that extend into the canopy with dominant and codominant trees. These trees receive little direct sunlight from above and none from the sides. Crowns generally are small and crowded on all sides.
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intolerance
View definition see tolerance.
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introduced species
View definition a nonnative species that was intentionally or unintentionally brought into an area by humans.
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J
jobber
View definition see logger
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L
landing
View definition a cleared area within or adjacent to a timber harvest where logs or tree length material are processed, piled, stored and loaded for transport to a sawmill or other facility.
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landowner objectives
View definition goals that landowners have for the current and future use of their property. They are deliberally thought out and defined in order to formulate a course of action to accomplish them.
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liquidation harvesting
View definition the purchase of timberland, followed by the removal of most or all commercial value in standing timber and prompt resale of the land. This is generally viewed as inconsistent with accepted principles of forest management.
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log
View definition a section of the main stem of a tree, varying in length and minimum diameters according to local market standards, that is usually sawn into lumber. As a verb, log refers to the process of harvesting, extracting, and transporting logs to a mill.
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log grading
View definition the assignment of a quality class to a log.
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logger
View definition an individual who harvests timber for a living.
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log rule or scale
View definition a method for calculating wood volume in a tree or log by using its diameter and length. The international 1/4-inch rule is the legal rule in Maine
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log scaling
View definition the estimation of the board foot volume to be sawn from a log. A log scale volume is an accepted form of measurement in log marketing.
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lopping
View definition cutting tree tops and branches from felled trees, to bring them closer to the ground. Lopping can increase visibility, improve the forest’s appearance, reduce fire danger, and speed up the rotting and return of nutrients to the soil after harvesting.
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lump-sum sale
View definition a timber sale in which a total price for all standing trees to be harvested is contracted, based on their estimated total value. The lump sum is set before the wood is removed and typically paid in a single payment. See also unit sale.
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M
marking
View definition the practice of indicating by paint or other visible, semipermanent means trees which are to be cut or are to remain after harvesting. A common practice is to mark trees to be harvested twice–once at eye level and once at the base. Marking may also be used to designate trees for other treatments, such as pruning.
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mast
View definition fruits, nuts and seeds, of trees and shrubs that serve as food for wildlife. “Hard mast” refers to nuts such as acorns, beechnuts, or hazelnuts. “Soft mast” refers to fruits such as cherries, wild apples, and various berries.
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merchantable height
View definition the point on a tree stem to which the stem is salable.
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mixed wood type
View definition forest stands occupied by a mixture of softwood and hardwood tree species. Neither hardwood nor softwood tree species occupy more than 75% of the tree stocking.
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N
natural regeneration
View definition seedlings from natural seeding or sprouts and other plants representing vegetative eproduction.
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niche
View definition the physical location and functional role of an organism within an ecosystem and how it interacts with other species.
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nongame wildlife
View definition wildlife species that are typically not hunted, either by common practice or by state wildlife laws. Examples include songbirds, eagles, amphibians, insects, etc.
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nonindustrial private forestland (NIPF)
View definition woodland owned by a private individual, group, or corporation not involved in wood processing. Fifty-five percent of Maine’s forests are in this category.
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O
objectives
View definition see landowner objectives.
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old-growth forest
View definition a wooded area that has no evidence of harvest or alteration by humans. An old-growth forest often has large individual trees, a multilayered crown canopy, and a significant accumulation of large woody material, including snags and fallen logs.
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overmature
View definition a quality exhibited by trees that have declined in growth rate because of old age and loss of vigor.
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overstocked
View definition the situation in which trees are so closely spaced that they compete for resources and do not reach full growth potential.
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overstory
View definition the level of forest canopy that includes the crowns of dominant, codominant, and intermediate trees.
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overstory removal
View definition see shelterwood.
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overtopped
View definition the situation in which a tree cannot sufficiently extend its crown into the overstory and receive direct sunlight. Overtopped trees that lack shade tolerance lose vigor and die. See suppressed.
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P
pallet log
View definition a low-grade hardwood log suitable for producing low-grade products such as pallets.
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patch cut
View definition removal of all trees within designated small areas in the harvest area. Areas are larger than those cut in a group selection method harvest. An even-aged management technique.
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pesticide
View definition any chemical used to control undesirable insects, vegetation or animals, or to guard against or treat a forest health problem.
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pole stand
View definition a stand of trees whose average dbh is between 4 and 10 inches.
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precommercial treatments
View definition forestry operations that require landowner investment, such as cleaning or weeding stands to remove trees that have little or no economic or market value. Precommercial treatments can improve species composition and increase the quality, growth, and vigor of remaining trees.
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prescription
View definition a course of action recommended to bring about a desired change in a forest stand.
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pruning
View definition the act of sawing or cutting branches from a living tree. In woodland management, pruning is done to promote the growth of clear wood free of knots, from which more valuable, knot-free boards can be sawn. Pruning is usually done in conjunction with thinning.
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pulp/pulpwood
View definition wood suitable for use in paper manufacturing.
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R
reforestation
View definition the establishment of a forest through artificially planted seed or seedlings. The vast majority of forests in Maine regenerate naturally without need for planting.
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regeneration
View definition the process by which a forest is reseeded and renewed. Advance regeneration refers to regeneration that is established before the existing forest stand is removed.
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release
View definition the process by which young stands of desirable trees, not past the sapling stage, are freed from the competition of undesirable trees that threaten to suppress them.
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residual stand
View definition the trees remaining uncut (and hopefully undamaged) following any cutting operation.
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riparian zone
View definition a strip of variable width, depending on the riparian functions identified, where special management considerations may be advisable to maintain or enhance those functions. Riparian functions can include protecting bank and channel stability, maintaining shade and inputs of vegetation to the water, carrying water to the surface, maintaining water quality, and providing wildlife habitat.
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roadside sale
View definition a timber harvest in which trees are harvested, brought to a place accessible to a log truck, and are sold from that location.
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rot
View definition a tree defect characterized by woody decay in a standing tree or log.
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rotation
View definition the number of years required to grow a stand to a desired size or maturity. See even-aged management.
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S
salvage cut
View definition the removal of dead, damaged, or diseased trees to recover maximum value prior to deterioration.
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sanitation cut
View definition removal of diseased, damaged, overmature, or undesirable stems from a stand.
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sapling
View definition a tree from 1 to 4 inches in diameter.
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sapling stand
View definition a stand of trees whose average dbh is between 1 and 4 inches.
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sawlog
View definition a log of sufficient size and quality to be sawed economically on a sawmill for use in lumber and other products.
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sawlog tree
View definition a standing tree that contains at least 1 sawlog.
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sawtimber
View definition sawlog-sized trees.
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sawtimber stand
View definition a stand of trees where sawlog trees predominate.
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scale stick
View definition a calibrated stick used to estimate wood volume in a log.
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scaling
View definition the process of measuring the dimensions of individual logs or trees. The measurements are used to estimate the volume of the logs or trees by applying them to a log rule or tree volume table.
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scarification
View definition the disturbance of the forest floor to expose areas of mineral soil. This is done to prepare a seedbed and encourage establishment of desired species of tree seedlings.
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sealed-bid sale
View definition a lump sum or unit timber sale, usually offered with the assistance of a consulting Forester, in which buyers submit secret bids.
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seed tree
View definition a mature tree left uncut to provide seed for regeneration of a harvested stand.
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seed-tree harvest
View definition the felling of all the trees in an area except for a few desirable individuals that provide seed for the next forest. An evenaged management technique.
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seedling
View definition trees that are less than 3 feet tall.
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selection harvest
View definition a method of harvesting in which individual trees or small groups of trees are removed to regenerate new seedlings and maintain an uneven-aged forest. Selection harvests are used to manage species that do not need high levels of sunlight to regenerate and survive in the understory.
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selective harvesting
View definition often used as a “catch all” for all types of partial cuttings. It is an exploitive cutting and often used to describe high grading, liquidation harvests, and diameter limit cutting. Who is doing the selecting and what criteria are they using?
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shelterwood harvest
View definition a method of regenerating new, even–aged stands by harvesting all mature trees in an area in a series of two or more cuts occurring within 10-20 years. One or more cuts leave merchantable trees to provide shade and protection for the establishment of forest seedlings. The second or third cut, or final removal, removes the remaining mature trees to give the regenerated trees full sunlight.
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silviculture
View definition the art and science of growing and tending forest trees.
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single-tree selection
View definition removal of single trees distributed throughout a harvest area.
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site
View definition the combination of biotic, climactic, topographic, and soil conditions of an area that determines the character and productivity of forest stands.
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site index
View definition a measure of the quality and potential productivity of a site based on the height of dominant trees at a specified age (usually 50 years), depending on the species.
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site preparation
View definition treatment of the forest floor and/or understory vegetation of an area to facilitate natural or artificial reestablishment of a forest stand. Site preparation can include mechanical clearing, burning, or chemical (herbicide) vegetation control.
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skid
View definition to drag logs or tree lengths either wholly or partially on the ground.
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skidder
View definition a generic term for a machine (usually rubber-tired) with a cable winch or grapple used to drag logs out of the forest.
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skidding
View definition the act of moving trees from the site of felling to a leading area or landing. Tractors, horses, or specialized logging equipment can be used for skidding. Skidding methods and operator skill vary significantly, and as a result differ in their efficiency and impact on soils and the remaining stands.
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skid road/skid trail
View definition an unsurfaced single-lane road used by skidders and other extraction equipment to access forest products for transport from the harvest area to the yard or landing.
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slash
View definition bark, branches, uprooted stumps and other woody material left on a site after logging, road construction or land maintenance.
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snag
View definition dead standing trees, often with tops broken off. Snags serve as perches, lookouts, and provide important food and cover for a wide variety of wildlife species.
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softwood
View definition used to designate all coniferous (cone-bearing species) as a class, including pines, hemlock, larch or hackmatack, spruces, balsam fir, and cedar.
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softwood type
View definition a forest in which softwood tree species comprise at least 75 percent of the stocking.
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springpole
View definition saplings or smaller trees that are bent over by a larger felled tree. They can be under extreme tension and are dangerous.
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sprout
View definition a tree growing from a cut stump or previously established root system. See also sucker.
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stand
View definition a group of forest trees of sufficiently uniform species composition, age, and condition to be considered a homogeneous unit for management purposes. See also forest types.
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stand density
View definition the quantity of trees per unit area, usually evaluated in terms of basal area, crown cover and stocking.
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stem
View definition see bole.
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stewardship
View definition the act of taking care of your land for the long term. Leaving your property in better condition than you found it.
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stewardship plan
View definition see Forest Management Plan or Woodland Management Plan.
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stocking
View definition a measurement of how fully the trees in a forest stand occupy the available growing space of the site, expressed in terms of trees per acre, basal area per acre, volume per acre, or percent of crown closure. Stands are often classified as understocked, well-stocked or overstocked.
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stratification
View definition the tendency of competing trees and shrubs in a developing stand to separate into different layers. The stratification of a stand can provide distinct niches for wildlife. See canopy, understory, and herbaceous vegetation.
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stream channel
View definition a channel between defined banks created by the action of surface water and characterized by the lack of terrestrial vegetation or the presence of a bed, devoid of topsoil, containing waterborne deposits or exposed soil parent material or bedrock.
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streamside management zone
View definition a forested area beside a stream or other body of water which is managed to protect or enhance the values associated with the water body, such as water quality,aquatic and other wildlife habitat.
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stumpage
View definition the value of standing trees in a forest.
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stumpage price
View definition the price offered or paid for standing forest trees.
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stumpage sale
View definition a timber sale arrangement where a fee is paid to the landowner for the standing trees, accompanied by the right of the buyer to harvest the trees from the property under agreed conditions.
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stump height
View definition the distance from the ground to the top of the stump. Good logging practice dictates that stumps be as low as possible (preferably as low as 12 inches) to reduce waste and to minimize visual impact on the logging site.
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succession
View definition the natural replacement of one plant (or animal) community by another over time in the absence of disturbance.
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suppressed
View definition a tree condition characterized by low growth rate and low vigor as a result of competition with overtopping trees. See overtopped.
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sustainability
View definition the ability of the natural environment to supply goods and services to humans for the indefinite future.
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sustained yield
View definition an idealized forest management objective in which the volume of wood removed equals growth within the total forest over an appropriate period of time.
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sweep
View definition a tree defect characterized by a gradual curve in the main stem.
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T
thinning
View definition a partial cut in an immature, overstocked stand of trees used to increase the stand's value growth by concentrating on individuals with the best potential.
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timber stand improvement (TSI)
View definition any practice that increases the rate of growth or improves composition or quality in a developing stand of trees, thus enhancing its potential value. Pruning, thinning, and weeding are considered TSI.
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timber trespass
View definition the negligent curring or removal of trees on a property without landowner permission.
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tolerance
View definition a tree species' ability to grow and thrive in shade.
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trim allowance/trim
View definition the extra 4 to 6 inches left on a bucked log to allow logs with end checks, pulls, or slanting buck cuts to be trimmed to standard lumber lengths.
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twitch
View definition see skid.
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U
understocked
View definition a stand of trees so widely spaced that crown closure will not occur; such stands typically do not fully occupy the site nor can they achieve the site’s full growth potential.
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understory
View definition the smaller vegetation (shrubs, seedlings, saplings, small trees) within a forest stand, occupying the vertical zone between the overstory and the herbaceous plants of the forest floor.
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uneven-aged stand
View definition an area of forest composed of trees of similar species, in which trees of several age classes are represented. See all-aged stand.
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unit sale
View definition a timber sale in which a separate price is agreed upon for multiple species/product combinations, and payments to the landowner are based on the actual measurements of wood products shown in mill receipts. Payments under a unit sale typically occur within an agreed-upon time frame for wood trucked since the last payment.
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V
veneer log
View definition a high-quality log of a desirable species suitable for conversion to veneer. Veneer logs must be large, straight, of minimum taper, and free from defects.
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vernal pool
View definition an ephemeral body of water that fills in the spring, holds water for at least 10 days, and dries up by fall some or all years and that does not contain fish. Vernal pools are extremely important habitat for a variety of amphibians and reptiles.
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virgin forest
View definition see old-growth forest.
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W
water bar
View definition a small earth berm or dam constructed at an angle across a skid road or trail to direct surface water to a stable vegetated surface or filter strip.
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watershed
View definition a region defined by patterns of stream drainage. A watershed includes all the land that contributes water to a particular point of interest on a stream, river, lake, or coastal feature.
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weeding
View definition the removal of all plants competing with a crop species, regardless of whether their crowns are above, beside, or below those of the desirable trees. Removal of diseased, damaged, and poor quality trees.
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well-stocked
View definition the situation in which a forest stand contains trees spaced widely enough to prevent competition yet closely enough to utilize the entire site.
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wetlands
View definition ponds, freshwater swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and for a duration sufficient to support, and which under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of wetland vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soils. Wetlands may be either freshwater or tidal.
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wildlife habitat
View definition the native environment of an animal. Habitats ideally provide all the elements needed for life and growth: food, water, cover and space.
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windfirm
View definition the ability of the root system of a tree to withstand wind pressure and keep the tree upright.
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windthrow
View definition a tree felled by wind. Windthrows, also known as blowdowns, are common among shallow-rooted species and in areas where cutting has reduced stand density.
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wolf tree
View definition a large older tree with a spreading crown and little or no timber value, but often having great value for wildlife. The same function as a snag, except the tree is still alive and possibly producing mast.
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woodland
View definition see forest.
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Woodland Management Plan (also called Forest Management Plan )
View definition a written document, based on landowner objectives and resources on the ground, which guides future activities to care for the land and accomplish the landowner’s objectives over the long term. Plans may consider many resources including wildlife, recreational opportunities, aesthetics, timber, water, soil, wetlands, unique features, and cultural resources.
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Y
yard
View definition see landing.
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Note: adapted from the Maine Forest Service “Women and the Woods” program and the Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension bulletin “Forestry Terminology."